Abstract

Pairs of soliton pulses are sent through a fiber, and the pulse separation at fiber input and output are compared. Both attractive and repulsive forces are observed. Close quantitative agreement with prediction is achieved, except when the pulses begin to merge. Then the attractive force becomes repulsive as the result of phase shifts triggered by the soliton self-frequency shift.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. I. Karpman, V. V. Solov'ev, Physica 3D, 487 (1981).
  2. J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 8, 596 (1983) [Note: That Letter contains several typographical errors: (1) In Eq. (17), the square root should not extend over α, (2) at the top of p. 598, the ν should be υ, (3) the exp should be deleted from Eq. (19).]
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. The following report on numerical simulation and discuss significance to communications of soliton attraction: K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 19, 429 (1983);P. L. Chu, C. Desem, in Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Tokyo, 1983), paper 28A3-4;B. Hermansson, D. Yevick, Electron Lett. 19, 571 (1983);D. Anderson, M. Lisak, Opt. Lett. 11, 174 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, Opt. Lett. 9, 13 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. M. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-222242 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. H. Stolen, W. Pleibel, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2639 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. For a discussion of the soliton period, see, for example, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22157 (1986), Appendix.
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. P. Gordon, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, New Jersey 07733 (personal communication).
  9. P. L. Chu, C. Desem, Electron. Lett. 21, 228 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. M. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 11, 659 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 11, 662 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. See, for example, L. F. Mollenauer, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 315, 437 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1986 (4)

F. M. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-222242 (1986).
[CrossRef]

For a discussion of the soliton period, see, for example, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22157 (1986), Appendix.
[CrossRef]

F. M. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 11, 659 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 11, 662 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

See, for example, L. F. Mollenauer, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 315, 437 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Chu, C. Desem, Electron. Lett. 21, 228 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

R. H. Stolen, W. Pleibel, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2639 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, Opt. Lett. 9, 13 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 8, 596 (1983) [Note: That Letter contains several typographical errors: (1) In Eq. (17), the square root should not extend over α, (2) at the top of p. 598, the ν should be υ, (3) the exp should be deleted from Eq. (19).]
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

The following report on numerical simulation and discuss significance to communications of soliton attraction: K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 19, 429 (1983);P. L. Chu, C. Desem, in Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Tokyo, 1983), paper 28A3-4;B. Hermansson, D. Yevick, Electron Lett. 19, 571 (1983);D. Anderson, M. Lisak, Opt. Lett. 11, 174 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

V. I. Karpman, V. V. Solov'ev, Physica 3D, 487 (1981).

Blow, K. J.

The following report on numerical simulation and discuss significance to communications of soliton attraction: K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 19, 429 (1983);P. L. Chu, C. Desem, in Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Tokyo, 1983), paper 28A3-4;B. Hermansson, D. Yevick, Electron Lett. 19, 571 (1983);D. Anderson, M. Lisak, Opt. Lett. 11, 174 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, P. L.

P. L. Chu, C. Desem, Electron. Lett. 21, 228 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Desem, C.

P. L. Chu, C. Desem, Electron. Lett. 21, 228 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Doran, N. J.

The following report on numerical simulation and discuss significance to communications of soliton attraction: K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 19, 429 (1983);P. L. Chu, C. Desem, in Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Tokyo, 1983), paper 28A3-4;B. Hermansson, D. Yevick, Electron Lett. 19, 571 (1983);D. Anderson, M. Lisak, Opt. Lett. 11, 174 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, J. P.

For a discussion of the soliton period, see, for example, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22157 (1986), Appendix.
[CrossRef]

J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 11, 662 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 8, 596 (1983) [Note: That Letter contains several typographical errors: (1) In Eq. (17), the square root should not extend over α, (2) at the top of p. 598, the ν should be υ, (3) the exp should be deleted from Eq. (19).]
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Gordon, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, New Jersey 07733 (personal communication).

Islam, M. N.

For a discussion of the soliton period, see, for example, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22157 (1986), Appendix.
[CrossRef]

Karpman, V. I.

V. I. Karpman, V. V. Solov'ev, Physica 3D, 487 (1981).

Mitschke, F. M.

F. M. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-222242 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 11, 659 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mollenauer, L. F.

F. M. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 11, 659 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

For a discussion of the soliton period, see, for example, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22157 (1986), Appendix.
[CrossRef]

F. M. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-222242 (1986).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, L. F. Mollenauer, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 315, 437 (1985).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, Opt. Lett. 9, 13 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pleibel, W.

R. H. Stolen, W. Pleibel, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2639 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

R. H. Stolen, W. Pleibel, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2639 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Solov'ev, V. V.

V. I. Karpman, V. V. Solov'ev, Physica 3D, 487 (1981).

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, W. Pleibel, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2639 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, Opt. Lett. 9, 13 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (2)

The following report on numerical simulation and discuss significance to communications of soliton attraction: K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 19, 429 (1983);P. L. Chu, C. Desem, in Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Tokyo, 1983), paper 28A3-4;B. Hermansson, D. Yevick, Electron Lett. 19, 571 (1983);D. Anderson, M. Lisak, Opt. Lett. 11, 174 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Chu, C. Desem, Electron. Lett. 21, 228 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R. H. Stolen, W. Pleibel, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2639 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

For a discussion of the soliton period, see, for example, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22157 (1986), Appendix.
[CrossRef]

F. M. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-222242 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

See, for example, L. F. Mollenauer, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 315, 437 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Physica (1)

V. I. Karpman, V. V. Solov'ev, Physica 3D, 487 (1981).

Other (1)

J. P. Gordon, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, New Jersey 07733 (personal communication).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Autocorrelation traces of pairs of τ = 0.90-psec pulses: a, at the input of 340-m fiber and b and c, at the fiber output, for pulses in phase (attractive) and of opposite phase (repulsive), respectively. Pulse separation at input, 2.33 psec. (All traces are to a common time scale.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pulse separation at output (σout) versus same at input (σin) of 340-m fiber. Solid curve, theory; dashed line, experiment. Without interaction, all points would fall on the 45° line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulse separation at fiber output σout as a function of the relative phase ϕ of the pulse pairs for a close (filled circles) and a wide (open circles) initial spacing σin.

Equations (1)

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σ τ = σ in τ + 1 0.88 ln f [ π z z 0 exp ( 0.88 σ i n τ ) ] ,

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