Abstract

Self-pumping in cerium-doped strontium barium niobate has been observed with phase-conjugate reflectivities near 6% and a formation time of 8 sec for a 200-mW/cm2 beam at 442 nm. The time response for asymmetrical self-defocusing was also measured, and the observed transmissions through the crystal at normal incidence were limited to about 1.5% of the incident radiation.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Feinberg, Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), p. 417.
  2. G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
  3. S. Sternklar, S. Weiss, M. Segev, B. Fischer, Opt. Lett. 11, 528 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 486 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Feinberg, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 5, 519 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. C. Jahoda, P. G. Weber, J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 9, 362 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, Opt. Commun. 59, 417 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. J. Sharp, M. J. Miller, G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark, G. J. Salamo, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Ferroelectrics Suppl., Proceedings of Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (1986), p. 51.
  10. J. Rodriguez, A. Siahmakoun, G. J. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in photorefractive Ba2−xSrxK1−yNayNb5O15,” submitted to Appl. Opt.
  11. K. Megumi, H. Kozuka, M. Kobayashi, Y. Furuhata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 631 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Rakuljic, A. Yariv, R. Neurgaonkar, Opt. Eng. 25, 1212 (1986).
  13. R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 3, 274 (1986).
  14. B. T. Anderson, P. R. Foreman, F. C. Jahoda, Opt. Lett. 10, 627 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1001 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 46 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Yariv, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4906 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Gunter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Cronin-Golomb, K. Y. Lau, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 567 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  20. We determined that the sign of the electro-optic coefficient, r33, is positive by the use of a calibrated compensator. This fact, coupled with the observation that extraordinary light fans toward the electrode held positive during poling, gives a negative sign for the photorefractive charge carriers.

1986 (5)

S. Sternklar, S. Weiss, M. Segev, B. Fischer, Opt. Lett. 11, 528 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, Opt. Commun. 59, 417 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. Rakuljic, A. Yariv, R. Neurgaonkar, Opt. Eng. 25, 1212 (1986).

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 3, 274 (1986).

D. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1001 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

B. T. Anderson, P. R. Foreman, F. C. Jahoda, Opt. Lett. 10, 627 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Yariv, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4906 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Cronin-Golomb, K. Y. Lau, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 567 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

1982 (4)

J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 486 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Gunter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 46 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1977 (1)

K. Megumi, H. Kozuka, M. Kobayashi, Y. Furuhata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 631 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B. T.

Clark, W. W.

G. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, Opt. Commun. 59, 417 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Sharp, M. J. Miller, G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark, G. J. Salamo, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Ferroelectrics Suppl., Proceedings of Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (1986), p. 51.

J. Rodriguez, A. Siahmakoun, G. J. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in photorefractive Ba2−xSrxK1−yNayNb5O15,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Cory, W. K.

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 3, 274 (1986).

Cronin-Golomb, M.

M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Yariv, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4906 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Cronin-Golomb, K. Y. Lau, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 567 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

Fischer, B.

S. Sternklar, S. Weiss, M. Segev, B. Fischer, Opt. Lett. 11, 528 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, P. R.

Furuhata, Y.

K. Megumi, H. Kozuka, M. Kobayashi, Y. Furuhata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 631 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

P. Gunter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R. W.

Jahoda, F. C.

Klein, M. B.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

Kobayashi, M.

K. Megumi, H. Kozuka, M. Kobayashi, Y. Furuhata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 631 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kozuka, H.

K. Megumi, H. Kozuka, M. Kobayashi, Y. Furuhata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 631 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. Y.

M. Cronin-Golomb, K. Y. Lau, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 567 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Megumi, K.

K. Megumi, H. Kozuka, M. Kobayashi, Y. Furuhata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 631 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M. J.

G. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, Opt. Commun. 59, 417 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Rodriguez, A. Siahmakoun, G. J. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in photorefractive Ba2−xSrxK1−yNayNb5O15,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

E. J. Sharp, M. J. Miller, G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark, G. J. Salamo, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Ferroelectrics Suppl., Proceedings of Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (1986), p. 51.

Neurgaonkar, R.

G. Rakuljic, A. Yariv, R. Neurgaonkar, Opt. Eng. 25, 1212 (1986).

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 3, 274 (1986).

J. Rodriguez, A. Siahmakoun, G. J. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in photorefractive Ba2−xSrxK1−yNayNb5O15,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

E. J. Sharp, M. J. Miller, G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark, G. J. Salamo, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Ferroelectrics Suppl., Proceedings of Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (1986), p. 51.

Pepper, D.

D. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1001 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rakuljic, G.

G. Rakuljic, A. Yariv, R. Neurgaonkar, Opt. Eng. 25, 1212 (1986).

Rodriguez, J.

J. Rodriguez, A. Siahmakoun, G. J. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in photorefractive Ba2−xSrxK1−yNayNb5O15,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Salamo, G.

G. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, Opt. Commun. 59, 417 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

J. Rodriguez, A. Siahmakoun, G. J. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in photorefractive Ba2−xSrxK1−yNayNb5O15,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

E. J. Sharp, M. J. Miller, G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark, G. J. Salamo, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Ferroelectrics Suppl., Proceedings of Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (1986), p. 51.

Segev, M.

Sharp, E. J.

G. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, Opt. Commun. 59, 417 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Sharp, M. J. Miller, G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark, G. J. Salamo, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Ferroelectrics Suppl., Proceedings of Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (1986), p. 51.

J. Rodriguez, A. Siahmakoun, G. J. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in photorefractive Ba2−xSrxK1−yNayNb5O15,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Siahmakoun, A.

J. Rodriguez, A. Siahmakoun, G. J. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in photorefractive Ba2−xSrxK1−yNayNb5O15,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Sternklar, S.

Valley, G. C.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

Weber, P. G.

Weiss, S.

White, J. O.

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wood, G. L.

G. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, Opt. Commun. 59, 417 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Sharp, M. J. Miller, G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark, G. J. Salamo, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Ferroelectrics Suppl., Proceedings of Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (1986), p. 51.

J. Rodriguez, A. Siahmakoun, G. J. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in photorefractive Ba2−xSrxK1−yNayNb5O15,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Yariv, A.

G. Rakuljic, A. Yariv, R. Neurgaonkar, Opt. Eng. 25, 1212 (1986).

M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Yariv, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4906 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Cronin-Golomb, K. Y. Lau, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 567 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Megumi, H. Kozuka, M. Kobayashi, Y. Furuhata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 631 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1001 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Cronin-Golomb, K. Y. Lau, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 567 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Yariv, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4906 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 46 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 3, 274 (1986).

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, Opt. Commun. 59, 417 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

G. Rakuljic, A. Yariv, R. Neurgaonkar, Opt. Eng. 25, 1212 (1986).

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rep. (1)

P. Gunter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

We determined that the sign of the electro-optic coefficient, r33, is positive by the use of a calibrated compensator. This fact, coupled with the observation that extraordinary light fans toward the electrode held positive during poling, gives a negative sign for the photorefractive charge carriers.

E. J. Sharp, M. J. Miller, G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark, G. J. Salamo, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Ferroelectrics Suppl., Proceedings of Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (1986), p. 51.

J. Rodriguez, A. Siahmakoun, G. J. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, E. J. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in photorefractive Ba2−xSrxK1−yNayNb5O15,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

J. Feinberg, Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), p. 417.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the experimental apparatus used to measure the phase-conjugate reflectivity and characteristic response times of the cerium-doped SBN:75 crystal. P, polarizer; L1, L2, lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical plot of phase-conjugate reflectivity for cerium-doped SBN:75 as a function of time for an incident intensity of 191 mW/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Steady-state phase-conjugate reflectivity of cerium-doped SBN:75 as a function of intensity at 442 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characteristic response times of cerium-doped SBN:75 as a function of intensity. Plots a and b are the phase-conjugate formation times measured at the 90% point and the e−1 point, respectively, of the steady-state reflectivity. Plots c and d are beam-fanning response times measured at the points where 90 and 63.2% (1 − e−1) of T(initial) − T(final) is diverted, respectively (where T is the transmissivity). The analytical expressions for the best fit of this data (straight lines) are given in Table 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The transmission through a SBN:75 crystal as a function of the incident intensity for steady-state beam fanning.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Time Response of Self-Pumped Photorefractive Materialsa

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