Abstract

We consider the role of the detector size in the imaging of confocal systems. We introduce a criterion for detector size to give true confocal operation and show that the lateral resolution is considerably more sensitive to detector size than is the depth-discrimination or optical-sectioning property.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).
  2. C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 3, 115 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Lett. 6, 625 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Wilson, D. K. Hamilton, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 128, Pt. 2, 139 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, Opt. Acta 25, 315 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).

1981 (1)

1978 (2)

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, Opt. Acta 25, 315 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 3, 115 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).

Hamilton, D. K.

D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Lett. 6, 625 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilson, D. K. Hamilton, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 128, Pt. 2, 139 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Lett. 6, 625 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 3, 115 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, Opt. Acta 25, 315 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Wilson, T.

D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Lett. 6, 625 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, Opt. Acta 25, 315 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 3, 115 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilson, D. K. Hamilton, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 128, Pt. 2, 139 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).

Opt. Acta (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, Opt. Acta 25, 315 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).

T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

T. Wilson, D. K. Hamilton, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 128, Pt. 2, 139 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The optical arrangement of the confocal system. When the object is in the focal plane, the reflected light is focused on the pinhole. When the object is out of the focal plane, a defocused spot is formed at the pinhole, and the measured intensity is greatly reduced.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The half-width of the image of a single point object as a function of detector pinhole size.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The variation of Iplane(u) against u for a variety of values of detector pinhole size vp.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The variation of the half-width u1/2 of the curves in Fig. 3 as a function of detector pinhole size vp.

Equations (6)

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I = h 2 ( h 2 * D ) ,
h ( u , v ) = 0 1 P ( ρ ) exp ½ j u ρ 2 J 0 ( v ρ ) ρ d ρ ,
v = k r sin α , u = k z sin 2 α ,
I ( v ) = h ( v ) 2 [ 2 π 0 v p - v h ( t ) 2 t d t + 2 v p - v v + v p h ( t ) 2 × cos - 1 ( t 2 + v 2 - v p 2 tv ) 2 t d t ] ,             v < v p
I ( v ) = 2 h ( v ) 2 v - v p v + v p h ( t ) 2 cos - 1 ( t 2 + v 2 - v p 2 t v ) 2 t d t ,             v > v p .
I plane ( u ) = 0 v p h 2 ( 2 u , v ) 2 v d v ,

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