Abstract

A three-laser, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) technique for the simultaneous acquisition of spectra from two species has been developed. A narrow-band, tunable dye-laser beam is used as one of the CARS pump beams. The frequency spacing between the spectra of the two species can be adjusted by changing the frequency of the dye-laser pump beam, enabling the spectra to be displayed at high resolution (0.5 cm−1) on the same intensified diode array detector.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. C. Eckbreth, G. M. Dobbs, J. H. Stufflebeam, P. A. Teller, Appl. Opt. 23, 1328 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, J. Energy 7, 403 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, L. A. Rahn, Appl. Opt. 21, 3119 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. L. Farrow, R. P. Lucht, G. L. Clark, R. E. Palmer, Appl. Opt. 24, 2241 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. C. Drake, R. W. Pitz, M. Lapp, AIAA J. 24, 905 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. W. Dibble, W. Kollman, R. W. Schefer, Combust. Flame 55, 307 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, Appl. Opt. 24, 2731 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, Appl. Opt. 25, 1534 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. R. R. Antcliff, O. Jarrett, in Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper TUH2.
  10. R. E. Teets, presented at the International Laser Science Conference, Dallas, Texas, November 18–22, 1985.
  11. R. E. Teets, Opt. Lett. 9, 226 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. R. L. Farrow, L. A. Rahn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 903 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1945).
  14. N. J. Bridge, A. D. Buckingham, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 295, 334 (1966).
    [Crossref]

1986 (2)

M. C. Drake, R. W. Pitz, M. Lapp, AIAA J. 24, 905 (1986).
[Crossref]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, Appl. Opt. 25, 1534 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (3)

1984 (3)

1983 (1)

L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, J. Energy 7, 403 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1966 (1)

N. J. Bridge, A. D. Buckingham, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 295, 334 (1966).
[Crossref]

Anderson, T. J.

Antcliff, R. R.

R. R. Antcliff, O. Jarrett, in Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper TUH2.

Bridge, N. J.

N. J. Bridge, A. D. Buckingham, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 295, 334 (1966).
[Crossref]

Buckingham, A. D.

N. J. Bridge, A. D. Buckingham, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 295, 334 (1966).
[Crossref]

Clark, G. L.

Dibble, R. W.

R. W. Dibble, W. Kollman, R. W. Schefer, Combust. Flame 55, 307 (1984).
[Crossref]

Dobbs, G. M.

Drake, M. C.

M. C. Drake, R. W. Pitz, M. Lapp, AIAA J. 24, 905 (1986).
[Crossref]

Eckbreth, A. C.

Farrow, R. L.

Goss, L. P.

L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, J. Energy 7, 403 (1983).
[Crossref]

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1945).

Jarrett, O.

R. R. Antcliff, O. Jarrett, in Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper TUH2.

Kollman, W.

R. W. Dibble, W. Kollman, R. W. Schefer, Combust. Flame 55, 307 (1984).
[Crossref]

Lapp, M.

M. C. Drake, R. W. Pitz, M. Lapp, AIAA J. 24, 905 (1986).
[Crossref]

Lucht, R. P.

Mattern, P. L.

Palmer, R. E.

Pitz, R. W.

M. C. Drake, R. W. Pitz, M. Lapp, AIAA J. 24, 905 (1986).
[Crossref]

Rahn, L. A.

Schefer, R. W.

R. W. Dibble, W. Kollman, R. W. Schefer, Combust. Flame 55, 307 (1984).
[Crossref]

Stufflebeam, J. H.

Switzer, G. L.

L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, J. Energy 7, 403 (1983).
[Crossref]

Teets, R. E.

R. E. Teets, Opt. Lett. 9, 226 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Teets, presented at the International Laser Science Conference, Dallas, Texas, November 18–22, 1985.

Teller, P. A.

Trump, D. D.

L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, J. Energy 7, 403 (1983).
[Crossref]

AIAA J. (1)

M. C. Drake, R. W. Pitz, M. Lapp, AIAA J. 24, 905 (1986).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Combust. Flame (1)

R. W. Dibble, W. Kollman, R. W. Schefer, Combust. Flame 55, 307 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Energy (1)

L. P. Goss, G. L. Switzer, D. D. Trump, J. Energy 7, 403 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

N. J. Bridge, A. D. Buckingham, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 295, 334 (1966).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

G. Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1945).

R. R. Antcliff, O. Jarrett, in Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper TUH2.

R. E. Teets, presented at the International Laser Science Conference, Dallas, Texas, November 18–22, 1985.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level schematic for three-laser CARS measurement of oxygen and nitrogen.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Three-laser CARS spectrum of nitrogen and oxygen obtained from cell at 400 K and 1.6 atm. The spectrum was averaged on the intensified diode array for 50 laser shots. The narrow-band dye-laser wavelength was 554.06 nm. The solid line is the experimental curve, and the dashed line is the theoretical fit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three-laser CARS spectrum of nitrogen and oxygen obtained from cell at 400 K and 1.6 atm. The spectrum was averaged on the intensified diode array for 50 laser shots. The narrow-band dye-laser wavelength was 554.96 nm. The solid line is the experimental curve, and the dashed line is the theoretical fit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Three-laser CARS spectrum of propane and nitrogen obtained from a fuel-injected engine. The spectrum was averaged on the detector for 10 laser shots. The narrow-band dye-laser wavelength was 549.00 nm.

Equations (5)

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I as ( ω as ) = κ χ ( ω 1 - ω s ) + χ ( ω 2 - ω s ) 2 I 1 ( ω 1 ) I 2 ( ω 2 ) × I s ( ω s ) δ ( ω 1 + ω 2 - ω s - ω as ) d ω 1 d ω 2 d ω s ,
χ ( ω 1 - ω s ) = 1 2 J 2 π c 4 Δ N J ( d σ / d Ω ) J h ω s 4 ( ω J - ω 1 + ω s - i Γ J ) + 1 2 χ nr = 1 2 χ ram ( ω 1 - ω s ) + 1 2 χ nr ,
ω as = ω J i + ω 2 = ω J k + ω 1 .
χ ( ω 1 - ω s ) + χ ( ω 2 - ω s ) = χ ram ( ω 1 - ω s ) + χ nr .
χ ( ω 1 - ω s ) + χ ( ω 2 - ω s ) = 1 / 2 χ ram ( ω 1 - ω 2 ) + χ nr .

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