Abstract

Traveling-wave amplification of a λ = 1.53 μm signal with +22-dB gain is achieved at 295 K in an Er3+-doped single-mode fiber using a λ = 514.5 nm pump source. The optimum fiber length for maximum gain is determined experimentally. A limit in signal-to-noise ratio that is due to concurrent amplification of spontaneous emission is observed. By cooling the fiber to 77 K, the amplifier gain is increased to +29 dB as a result of depopulation of the lower laser level.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  4. S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, R. J. Mears, M. E. Fermann, R. I. Laming, IEEE. J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 7, 870 (1986);L. Reekie, R. J. Mears, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 956 (1986).
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  5. R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 22, 159 (1986);R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper W12.
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1986 (3)

S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, R. J. Mears, M. E. Fermann, R. I. Laming, IEEE. J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 7, 870 (1986);L. Reekie, R. J. Mears, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 956 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 22, 159 (1986);R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper W12.
[CrossRef]

M. J. F. Digonnet, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4,1631 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 22, 2033 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1964 (1)

1962 (1)

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, Proc. IRE 50, 1531 (1962).

Broer, M. M.

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 22, 2033 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

M. J. F. Digonnet, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4,1631 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, R. C.

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, Proc. IRE 50, 1531 (1962).

Fermann, M. E.

S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, R. J. Mears, M. E. Fermann, R. I. Laming, IEEE. J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 7, 870 (1986);L. Reekie, R. J. Mears, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 956 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Golding, B.

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 22, 2033 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hegarty, J.

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 22, 2033 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kiss, Z. J.

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, Proc. IRE 50, 1531 (1962).

Koestler, C. J.

Laming, R. I.

S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, R. J. Mears, M. E. Fermann, R. I. Laming, IEEE. J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 7, 870 (1986);L. Reekie, R. J. Mears, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 956 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Loudon, R.

R. Loudon, The Quantum-Theory of Light, 2nd ed. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1983);R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, eds., Lasers and Excited States of Rare Earths (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977).
[CrossRef]

MacChesney, J. B.

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 22, 2033 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mears, R. J.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 22, 159 (1986);R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper W12.
[CrossRef]

S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, R. J. Mears, M. E. Fermann, R. I. Laming, IEEE. J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 7, 870 (1986);L. Reekie, R. J. Mears, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 956 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, R. J. Mears, M. E. Fermann, R. I. Laming, IEEE. J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 7, 870 (1986);L. Reekie, R. J. Mears, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 956 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 22, 159 (1986);R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper W12.
[CrossRef]

Poole, S. B.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 22, 159 (1986);R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper W12.
[CrossRef]

S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, R. J. Mears, M. E. Fermann, R. I. Laming, IEEE. J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 7, 870 (1986);L. Reekie, R. J. Mears, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 956 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 22, 159 (1986);R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper W12.
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 22, 2033 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

Stone, J.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 22, 159 (1986);R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper W12.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. J. F. Digonnet, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4,1631 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, R. J. Mears, M. E. Fermann, R. I. Laming, IEEE. J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 7, 870 (1986);L. Reekie, R. J. Mears, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 956 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 22, 2033 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE (1)

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, Proc. IRE 50, 1531 (1962).

Other (1)

R. Loudon, The Quantum-Theory of Light, 2nd ed. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1983);R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, eds., Lasers and Excited States of Rare Earths (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: AI, argon-ion laser; LD, laser diode; BS, beam splitter; MO's, microscope objectives; OF, optical filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pump, signal, and ASE output power, as a function of fiber length, for three different input pump powers: Pp(0) = (a) 20 mW, (b) 55 mW, and (c) 100 mW. The input signal power is Ps(0) = 15 μW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Signal gain at λ = 1.53 μm, as a function of input pump power, for different fiber lengths l.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Optimal Lengths, Maximum Gains, and Pump Thresholds for Different Input Pump Powers

Equations (4)

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d I p d z = W + A 21 R + 2 W + A 21 ρ σ p I p ,
d I s d z = R A 21 R + 2 W + A 21 ρ σ s I s ,
d I p d z = [ 1 + I p / ( 1 + 2 I s ) ] 1 1 + I s 1 + 2 I s ρ σ p I p ,
d I s d z = [ 1 + 2 I s / ( 1 + I p ) ] 1 I p 1 I p + 1 ρ σ s I s .

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