Abstract

The multiplexing and demodulation of interferometric sensors using a time-division/phase-generated carrier approach is described. The scheme uses slightly unbalanced interferometers and laser frequency modulation to effect the interrogation of the sensors, while the time-division multiplexing allows individual sensors to be addressed. Phase sensitivities of 20μrad/Hz and cross-talk levels of <−47 dB are demonstrated for a three-sensor network.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, “Signal processing for optical fiber sensors,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.798 (to be published, 1987).
  2. I. P. Giles, D. Ultam, B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, Electron. Lett. 19, 14 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. L. Brooks, R. M. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, M. J. Shaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, M. L. Henning, Electron. Lett. 20, 53 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. L. Brooks, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, K. A. Fester, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 11, 473 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. L. Brooks, B. Y. Kim, M. Tur, H. J. Shaw, presented at the Conference on Laser and Fiber-Optic Sensors IV, Cambridge, Mass., September 1986.
  7. A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, A. D. Kersey, A. M. Yurek, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).
  8. A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1647 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, Appl. Phys. Lett 39, 530 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

J. L. Brooks, R. M. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, M. J. Shaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, M. L. Henning, Electron. Lett. 20, 53 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

I. P. Giles, D. Ultam, B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, Electron. Lett. 19, 14 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1647 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, Appl. Phys. Lett 39, 530 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, J. L.

J. L. Brooks, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, K. A. Fester, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 11, 473 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Brooks, R. M. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, M. J. Shaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Brooks, B. Y. Kim, M. Tur, H. J. Shaw, presented at the Conference on Laser and Fiber-Optic Sensors IV, Cambridge, Mass., September 1986.

Culshaw, B.

I. P. Giles, D. Ultam, B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, Electron. Lett. 19, 14 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, M. L. Henning, Electron. Lett. 20, 53 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1647 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, Appl. Phys. Lett 39, 530 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, A. D. Kersey, A. M. Yurek, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, “Signal processing for optical fiber sensors,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.798 (to be published, 1987).

Davies, D. E. N.

I. P. Giles, D. Ultam, B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, Electron. Lett. 19, 14 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fester, K. A.

Giallorenzi, T. G.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1647 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Giles, I. P.

I. P. Giles, D. Ultam, B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, Electron. Lett. 19, 14 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Henning, M. L.

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, M. L. Henning, Electron. Lett. 20, 53 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, “Signal processing for optical fiber sensors,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.798 (to be published, 1987).

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, A. D. Kersey, A. M. Yurek, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Kim, B. Y.

J. L. Brooks, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, K. A. Fester, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 11, 473 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Brooks, R. M. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, M. J. Shaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Brooks, B. Y. Kim, M. Tur, H. J. Shaw, presented at the Conference on Laser and Fiber-Optic Sensors IV, Cambridge, Mass., September 1986.

Shaw, H. J.

J. L. Brooks, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, K. A. Fester, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 11, 473 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Brooks, B. Y. Kim, M. Tur, H. J. Shaw, presented at the Conference on Laser and Fiber-Optic Sensors IV, Cambridge, Mass., September 1986.

Shaw, M. J.

J. L. Brooks, R. M. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, M. J. Shaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

J. L. Brooks, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, K. A. Fester, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 11, 473 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Brooks, R. M. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, M. J. Shaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Brooks, B. Y. Kim, M. Tur, H. J. Shaw, presented at the Conference on Laser and Fiber-Optic Sensors IV, Cambridge, Mass., September 1986.

Tveten, A. B.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1647 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, Appl. Phys. Lett 39, 530 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, A. D. Kersey, A. M. Yurek, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Ultam, D.

I. P. Giles, D. Ultam, B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, Electron. Lett. 19, 14 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wade, C. A.

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, M. L. Henning, Electron. Lett. 20, 53 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wentworth, R. M.

J. L. Brooks, R. M. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, M. J. Shaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Youngquist, R. C.

J. L. Brooks, R. M. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, M. J. Shaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yurek, A. M.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, A. D. Kersey, A. M. Yurek, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, Appl. Phys. Lett 39, 530 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, M. L. Henning, Electron. Lett. 20, 53 (1984).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Giles, D. Ultam, B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, Electron. Lett. 19, 14 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. L. Brooks, R. M. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, M. J. Shaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1647 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

J. L. Brooks, B. Y. Kim, M. Tur, H. J. Shaw, presented at the Conference on Laser and Fiber-Optic Sensors IV, Cambridge, Mass., September 1986.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, A. D. Kersey, A. M. Yurek, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, “Signal processing for optical fiber sensors,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.798 (to be published, 1987).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of an N-element array. S1, S2, Sn, sensors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental three-sensor system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sensor outputs: (a) Pulse train received at the avalanche photodiode without the output AOM in operation. (b) Demultiplexed interferometer outputs; piezo-electric phase shifters driven by a 2π rad peak-to-peak amplitude at ∼ 4, 2.8, and 8 kHz for interferometers MZ1 MZ2, and MZ3, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PGC demodulated outputs: (a) Phase-detection sensitivity; signal, 200-mrad rms at 5 kHz applied to interferometer MZ1only. (b) Interferometer MZ1 output with 200 mrad applied to each sensor at frequencies of 4, 3.3, and 4.7 kHz for interferometers MZ1, MZ2, and MZ3, respectively. Raw cross talk, −53 dB.

Equations (4)

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Δ ϕ j sin ω m t = 2 π n l j c Δ ν sin ω m t ,
S j ω m = I 0 k j J 1 ( Δ ϕ j ) sin ϕ 0 j sin ω m t ,
S j 2 ω m = I 0 k j J 2 ( Δ ϕ j ) cos ϕ 0 j cos ω m t ,
P j = [ I 0 2 k j 2 J 1 ( Δ ϕ j ) J 2 ( Δ ϕ j ) G j ] ϕ 0 j = A ϕ 0 j ,

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