Abstract

Simple conical microlenses are fabricated on the end of a vapor-axial-deposition single-mode fiber to increase the coupling efficiency between the laser diode and the single-mode fiber. The lowest coupling loss, 3 dB, has been achieved by using a 1.3-μm InGaAsP buried-heterostructure laser diode and a single-mode fiber. Experimental results on coupling efficiency and the loss penalty due to lateral misalignment are also reported. This conical lens is easy to manufacture and reproduce.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Yamada, S. Machida, T. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 17, 479 (1981).
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    [Crossref]
  4. J. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, K. Asatani, H. Tsuchiya, A. Kawana, K. Sugiyama, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 791 (1978).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  16. G. Eisenstein, D. Vitello, Appl. Opt. 21, 3470 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  18. J. Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1059 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. Ulrich, S. C. Rashleigh, Appl. Opt. 19, 2453 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. W. Bludau, R. Rossberg, Appl. Opt. 21, 1933 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (3)

K. S. Lee, F. S. Barnes, Appl. Opt. 24, 3134 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739 (1985).
[Crossref]

W. Bludau, R. H. Rossberg, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 294 (1985).
[Crossref]

1982 (4)

G. Eisenstein, D. Vitello, Appl. Opt. 21, 3470 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kawachi, T. Edahira, H. Toba, Electron. Lett. 18, 71 (1982).
[Crossref]

M. M. Boenke, R. E. Wagner, D. J. Will, Electron. Lett. 18, 897 (1982).
[Crossref]

W. Bludau, R. Rossberg, Appl. Opt. 21, 1933 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (2)

J. Yamada, S. Machida, T. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 17, 479 (1981).
[Crossref]

P. Kayoun, C. Puech, M. Papuchon, H. J. Arditty, Electron. Lett. 17, 400 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (7)

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1059 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. Ulrich, S. C. Rashleigh, Appl. Opt. 19, 2453 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. D. Bear, Appl. Opt. 19, 2906 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Murakami, J. Yamada, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 16, 322 (1980).
[Crossref]

H. Kuwahara, M. Sasaki, N. Tokyo, Appl. Opt. 19, 2578 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, Electron. Lett. 16, 956 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

J. Yamada, S. Machida, T. Mukai, H. Kano, K. Sugiyama, Electron. Lett. 15, 596 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

J. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, K. Asatani, H. Tsuchiya, A. Kawana, K. Sugiyama, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 791 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

1974 (1)

Arditty, H. J.

P. Kayoun, C. Puech, M. Papuchon, H. J. Arditty, Electron. Lett. 17, 400 (1981).
[Crossref]

Asatani, K.

J. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, K. Asatani, H. Tsuchiya, A. Kawana, K. Sugiyama, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 791 (1978).
[Crossref]

Barnes, F. S.

Bear, P. D.

Bludau, W.

W. Bludau, R. H. Rossberg, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 294 (1985).
[Crossref]

W. Bludau, R. Rossberg, Appl. Opt. 21, 1933 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boenke, M. M.

M. M. Boenke, R. E. Wagner, D. J. Will, Electron. Lett. 18, 897 (1982).
[Crossref]

Cohen, L. G.

Edahira, T.

M. Kawachi, T. Edahira, H. Toba, Electron. Lett. 18, 71 (1982).
[Crossref]

Eisenstein, G.

Ikushima, I.

Itoh, R.

Kano, H.

J. Yamada, S. Machida, T. Mukai, H. Kano, K. Sugiyama, Electron. Lett. 15, 596 (1979).
[Crossref]

Kawachi, M.

M. Kawachi, T. Edahira, H. Toba, Electron. Lett. 18, 71 (1982).
[Crossref]

Kawana, A.

J. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, K. Asatani, H. Tsuchiya, A. Kawana, K. Sugiyama, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 791 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kawano, K.

K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739 (1985).
[Crossref]

Kayoun, P.

P. Kayoun, C. Puech, M. Papuchon, H. J. Arditty, Electron. Lett. 17, 400 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kimura, T.

J. Yamada, S. Machida, T. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 17, 479 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[Crossref]

Y. Murakami, J. Yamada, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 16, 322 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1059 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, K. Asatani, H. Tsuchiya, A. Kawana, K. Sugiyama, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 791 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kuwahara, H.

Lee, K. S.

Machida, S.

J. Yamada, S. Machida, T. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 17, 479 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Yamada, S. Machida, T. Mukai, H. Kano, K. Sugiyama, Electron. Lett. 15, 596 (1979).
[Crossref]

Maeda, M.

Mitomi, O.

K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739 (1985).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

J. Yamada, S. Machida, T. Mukai, H. Kano, K. Sugiyama, Electron. Lett. 15, 596 (1979).
[Crossref]

Murakami, Y.

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[Crossref]

Y. Murakami, J. Yamada, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 16, 322 (1980).
[Crossref]

Nagano, K.

Nakashima, H.

Papuchon, M.

P. Kayoun, C. Puech, M. Papuchon, H. J. Arditty, Electron. Lett. 17, 400 (1981).
[Crossref]

Puech, C.

P. Kayoun, C. Puech, M. Papuchon, H. J. Arditty, Electron. Lett. 17, 400 (1981).
[Crossref]

Rashleigh, S. C.

Rossberg, R.

Rossberg, R. H.

W. Bludau, R. H. Rossberg, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 294 (1985).
[Crossref]

Sakai, J.

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[Crossref]

Y. Murakami, J. Yamada, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 16, 322 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1059 (1980).
[Crossref]

Saruwatari, M.

K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739 (1985).
[Crossref]

M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, Electron. Lett. 16, 956 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, K. Asatani, H. Tsuchiya, A. Kawana, K. Sugiyama, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 791 (1978).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, M.

Schneider, M. V.

Sugie, T.

M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, Electron. Lett. 16, 956 (1980).
[Crossref]

Sugiyama, K.

J. Yamada, S. Machida, T. Mukai, H. Kano, K. Sugiyama, Electron. Lett. 15, 596 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, K. Asatani, H. Tsuchiya, A. Kawana, K. Sugiyama, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 791 (1978).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, M.

Toba, H.

M. Kawachi, T. Edahira, H. Toba, Electron. Lett. 18, 71 (1982).
[Crossref]

Tokyo, N.

Tsuchiya, H.

J. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, K. Asatani, H. Tsuchiya, A. Kawana, K. Sugiyama, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 791 (1978).
[Crossref]

Ulrich, R.

Vitello, D.

Wagner, R. E.

M. M. Boenke, R. E. Wagner, D. J. Will, Electron. Lett. 18, 897 (1982).
[Crossref]

Will, D. J.

M. M. Boenke, R. E. Wagner, D. J. Will, Electron. Lett. 18, 897 (1982).
[Crossref]

Yamada, J.

J. Yamada, S. Machida, T. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 17, 479 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[Crossref]

Y. Murakami, J. Yamada, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 16, 322 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Yamada, S. Machida, T. Mukai, H. Kano, K. Sugiyama, Electron. Lett. 15, 596 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, K. Asatani, H. Tsuchiya, A. Kawana, K. Sugiyama, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 791 (1978).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (8)

Electron. Lett. (7)

M. Kawachi, T. Edahira, H. Toba, Electron. Lett. 18, 71 (1982).
[Crossref]

P. Kayoun, C. Puech, M. Papuchon, H. J. Arditty, Electron. Lett. 17, 400 (1981).
[Crossref]

M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, Electron. Lett. 16, 956 (1980).
[Crossref]

Y. Murakami, J. Yamada, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 16, 322 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Yamada, S. Machida, T. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 17, 479 (1981).
[Crossref]

M. M. Boenke, R. E. Wagner, D. J. Will, Electron. Lett. 18, 897 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Yamada, S. Machida, T. Mukai, H. Kano, K. Sugiyama, Electron. Lett. 15, 596 (1979).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

K. Kawano, M. Saruwatari, O. Mitomi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 739 (1985).
[Crossref]

W. Bludau, R. H. Rossberg, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 294 (1985).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

J. Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1059 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, K. Asatani, H. Tsuchiya, A. Kawana, K. Sugiyama, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 791 (1978).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Apex-diameter reduction rate for the etchant solution with 1 part 50% hydrofluoric acid buffered in 10 parts of 40% ammonium fluoride.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near-field patterns observed at the end face (i.e., the microlens side) of the Al-coated VAD SMF after different etching times: (a) 1.25 h, (b) 2 h, (c) 4 h.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Near-field patterns observed at the end (i.e., the microlens side of polarization-maintaining (PANDA) fiber after different etching times: (a) 70 min, (b) 85 min, (c) 100 min.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Coupling loss versus etching time. (a) Conventional Al-coated SMF (LD spot sizes: LD1, W|| = 1.2 μm, W = 1.14 μm; LD2, W|| = 1.4 μm, W = 0.51 μm). (b) Polarization-maintaining fiber (LD spot sizes: □, W|| = 1.72 μm, W = 0.81 μm; ×, W|| = 2.77 μm, W = 0.76 μm; ●, W|| = 2.94 μm, W = 0.76 μm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Coupling efficiency versus misalignments (offsets) perpendicular (X) and parallel (Y) to the laser-junction planes and along the laser-to-fiber axis (Z) for different etching times. (a) t = 1 h; alignment tolerance for a 1-dB additional loss from the peak is (i.e., ±ΔX or ±ΔY) ±0.9 μm.(b) t = 1.7 h; ±0.75 μm. (c) t = 3 h; ±0.45 μm. (d) t = 4 h; ±0.35μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Various Methods of Laser-Diode-to-Fiber Coupling Together with the Corresponding Lowest Coupling Loss

Equations (1)

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W = λ / [ π tan ( θ , | | / 2 ) ] .

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