Abstract

GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructure lasers with a monolithic confocal unstable resonator were demonstrated. The curved mirrors satisfying the confocal condition were fabricated by etching. Close to threshold, the lasers operate in a single lateral mode with a nearly collimated output beam. A single-lobe far-field intensity distribution as narrow as 1.9° full width at half maximum was measured.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. E. Siegman, Proc. IEEE 53, 277 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. F. Krupke, W. R. Sooy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-5, 575 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. P. Reilly, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 136 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Chodzko, H. Mirels, F. S. Roehrs, R. Pedersen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 523 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, M. A. Man’ko, G. T. Mikaelyan, Y. M. Popov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 620 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. R. Craig, L. W. Casperson, O. M. Stafsudd, J. J. J. Yang, G. A. Evans, R. A. Davidheiser, Electron. Lett. 21, 62 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Salzman, T. Venkatesan, R. Lang, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 218 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Mittelstein, J. Salzman, T. Venkatesan, R. Lang, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 923 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Salzman, R. Lang, S. Margalit, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 9 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Salzman, R. Lang, T. Venkatesan, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 445 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Salzman, R. Lang, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), p. 40.
  12. D. B. Rensch, A. N. Chester, Appl. Opt. 12, 997 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. H. Paxton, J. H. Erkkila, Opt. Lett. 1, 166 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. The spectrally resolved near field shows several longitudinal modes (as many as 10 modes at high injection levels). The spectra of the two beams in Fig. 3(c) are identical, indicating that they are phase locked.

1985 (5)

R. R. Craig, L. W. Casperson, O. M. Stafsudd, J. J. J. Yang, G. A. Evans, R. A. Davidheiser, Electron. Lett. 21, 62 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, T. Venkatesan, R. Lang, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 218 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Mittelstein, J. Salzman, T. Venkatesan, R. Lang, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 923 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, R. Lang, S. Margalit, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 9 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, R. Lang, T. Venkatesan, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 445 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, M. A. Man’ko, G. T. Mikaelyan, Y. M. Popov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 620 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1973 (2)

D. B. Rensch, A. N. Chester, Appl. Opt. 12, 997 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Chodzko, H. Mirels, F. S. Roehrs, R. Pedersen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 523 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

J. P. Reilly, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 136 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

W. F. Krupke, W. R. Sooy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-5, 575 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

A. E. Siegman, Proc. IEEE 53, 277 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bogatov, A. P.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, M. A. Man’ko, G. T. Mikaelyan, Y. M. Popov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 620 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Casperson, L. W.

R. R. Craig, L. W. Casperson, O. M. Stafsudd, J. J. J. Yang, G. A. Evans, R. A. Davidheiser, Electron. Lett. 21, 62 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chester, A. N.

Chodzko, R. A.

R. A. Chodzko, H. Mirels, F. S. Roehrs, R. Pedersen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 523 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Craig, R. R.

R. R. Craig, L. W. Casperson, O. M. Stafsudd, J. J. J. Yang, G. A. Evans, R. A. Davidheiser, Electron. Lett. 21, 62 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Davidheiser, R. A.

R. R. Craig, L. W. Casperson, O. M. Stafsudd, J. J. J. Yang, G. A. Evans, R. A. Davidheiser, Electron. Lett. 21, 62 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Eliseev, P. G.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, M. A. Man’ko, G. T. Mikaelyan, Y. M. Popov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 620 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Erkkila, J. H.

Evans, G. A.

R. R. Craig, L. W. Casperson, O. M. Stafsudd, J. J. J. Yang, G. A. Evans, R. A. Davidheiser, Electron. Lett. 21, 62 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

W. F. Krupke, W. R. Sooy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-5, 575 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lang, R.

M. Mittelstein, J. Salzman, T. Venkatesan, R. Lang, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 923 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, T. Venkatesan, R. Lang, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 218 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, R. Lang, S. Margalit, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 9 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, R. Lang, T. Venkatesan, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 445 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, R. Lang, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), p. 40.

Man’ko, M. A.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, M. A. Man’ko, G. T. Mikaelyan, Y. M. Popov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 620 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Margalit, S.

J. Salzman, R. Lang, S. Margalit, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 9 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mikaelyan, G. T.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, M. A. Man’ko, G. T. Mikaelyan, Y. M. Popov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 620 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mirels, H.

R. A. Chodzko, H. Mirels, F. S. Roehrs, R. Pedersen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 523 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Mittelstein, M.

J. Salzman, R. Lang, T. Venkatesan, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 445 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, T. Venkatesan, R. Lang, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 218 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Mittelstein, J. Salzman, T. Venkatesan, R. Lang, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 923 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, R. Lang, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), p. 40.

Paxton, A. H.

Pedersen, R.

R. A. Chodzko, H. Mirels, F. S. Roehrs, R. Pedersen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 523 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Popov, Y. M.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, M. A. Man’ko, G. T. Mikaelyan, Y. M. Popov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 620 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Reilly, J. P.

J. P. Reilly, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 136 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rensch, D. B.

Roehrs, F. S.

R. A. Chodzko, H. Mirels, F. S. Roehrs, R. Pedersen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 523 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Salzman, J.

J. Salzman, T. Venkatesan, R. Lang, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 218 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Mittelstein, J. Salzman, T. Venkatesan, R. Lang, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 923 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, R. Lang, S. Margalit, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 9 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, R. Lang, T. Venkatesan, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 445 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, R. Lang, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), p. 40.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Proc. IEEE 53, 277 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Sooy, W. R.

W. F. Krupke, W. R. Sooy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-5, 575 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Stafsudd, O. M.

R. R. Craig, L. W. Casperson, O. M. Stafsudd, J. J. J. Yang, G. A. Evans, R. A. Davidheiser, Electron. Lett. 21, 62 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesan, T.

J. Salzman, T. Venkatesan, R. Lang, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 218 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, R. Lang, T. Venkatesan, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 445 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Mittelstein, J. Salzman, T. Venkatesan, R. Lang, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 923 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. J. J.

R. R. Craig, L. W. Casperson, O. M. Stafsudd, J. J. J. Yang, G. A. Evans, R. A. Davidheiser, Electron. Lett. 21, 62 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

J. Salzman, T. Venkatesan, R. Lang, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 218 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Mittelstein, J. Salzman, T. Venkatesan, R. Lang, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 923 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, R. Lang, S. Margalit, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 9 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, R. Lang, T. Venkatesan, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 445 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, R. Lang, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), p. 40.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Salzman, T. Venkatesan, R. Lang, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 218 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Mittelstein, J. Salzman, T. Venkatesan, R. Lang, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 923 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, R. Lang, S. Margalit, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 9 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Salzman, R. Lang, T. Venkatesan, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 445 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. R. Craig, L. W. Casperson, O. M. Stafsudd, J. J. J. Yang, G. A. Evans, R. A. Davidheiser, Electron. Lett. 21, 62 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

W. F. Krupke, W. R. Sooy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-5, 575 (1969).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. P. Reilly, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 136 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Chodzko, H. Mirels, F. S. Roehrs, R. Pedersen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 523 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. E. Siegman, Proc. IEEE 53, 277 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, M. A. Man’ko, G. T. Mikaelyan, Y. M. Popov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 620 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Salzman, R. Lang, M. Mittelstein, A. Yariv, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), p. 40.

The spectrally resolved near field shows several longitudinal modes (as many as 10 modes at high injection levels). The spectra of the two beams in Fig. 3(c) are identical, indicating that they are phase locked.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the unstable resonator of positive branch.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic drawing of the confocal UR semiconductor laser. Section I is the resonator. Sections II and III are the output couplers. (b) SEM picture of the etched mirror M2

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Near-field intensity distribution of the confocal UR semiconductor laser for different values of the injection current. (a) Spontaneous emission in sections II and III. (b) Section I operated below threshold. (c) Section I operated above threshold.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Far-field intensity distribution with section I above threshold and only one of the output couplers operated.

Equations (2)

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I ( θ ) = I 0 sin 2 [ θ ( u 1 - u 2 ) ] [ θ ( u 1 - u 2 ) ] 2 cos 2 [ θ ( u 1 + u 2 ) ] ,
| Δ L L | ~ | Δ R 1 2 L | ~ | Δ R 2 2 L | L λ 16 a 1 2 .

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