Abstract

Sequential photon-excitation, electron-impact ionization with subsequent mass analysis has been applied to a barium atomic beam. High-resolution, Doppler-free laser excitation produces the 6s6p 1P1 excited state, which is then ionized by electron bombardment. The excited state is selectively ionized when bombardment energies are between the excited- and ground-state ionization thresholds. Mass discrimination has permitted the recording of individual optical spectra for all the stable isotopes, including the 0.1% abundant 130Ba and 132Ba, in a sample with natural isotopic abundances.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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1985

1984

W. Ohnesorge, J. Hager, H. Walther, AIP Conf. Ser. 71, 37 (1984).

B. Carré, G. Spiess, J. M. Bizau, P. Dhez, P. Gérard, F. Wuilleumier, J. C. Keller, J. L. LeGouët, J. L. Picqué, D. L. Ederer, P. M. Koch, Opt. Commun. 52, 29 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981

X. Hui-Rong, S. V. Benson, T. W. Hänsch, Laser Focus 17(3), 54 (1981).

1980

B. Jaduszliwer, R. Dang, P. Weiss, B. Bederson, Phys. Rev. A 21, 808 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. C. Travis, P. K. Schenck, G. C. Turk, W. G. Mallard, Anal. Chem. 51, 1516 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Keller, R. Engleman, E. F. Zalewski, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 738 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. J. McGuire, Phys. Rev. A 20, 445 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

G. Nowicki, K. Bekk, S. Goring, A. Hanser, H. Rebel, G. Schatz, Phys. Rev. C 18, 2369 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

H. Gerhardt, R. Wenz, E. Matthias, Phys. Lett. 61A, 377 (1977).

F. M. Kelley, M. S. Mathur, Can. J. Phys. 55, 83 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974

I. V. Hertel, W. Stoll, J. Phys. B 7, 583 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970

S. Okudaira, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 29, 409 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bederson, B.

B. Jaduszliwer, R. Dang, P. Weiss, B. Bederson, Phys. Rev. A 21, 808 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bekk, K.

G. Nowicki, K. Bekk, S. Goring, A. Hanser, H. Rebel, G. Schatz, Phys. Rev. C 18, 2369 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Benson, S. V.

X. Hui-Rong, S. V. Benson, T. W. Hänsch, Laser Focus 17(3), 54 (1981).

Bizau, J. M.

B. Carré, G. Spiess, J. M. Bizau, P. Dhez, P. Gérard, F. Wuilleumier, J. C. Keller, J. L. LeGouët, J. L. Picqué, D. L. Ederer, P. M. Koch, Opt. Commun. 52, 29 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bushaw, B. A.

Cannon, B. D.

Carré, B.

B. Carré, G. Spiess, J. M. Bizau, P. Dhez, P. Gérard, F. Wuilleumier, J. C. Keller, J. L. LeGouët, J. L. Picqué, D. L. Ederer, P. M. Koch, Opt. Commun. 52, 29 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dang, R.

B. Jaduszliwer, R. Dang, P. Weiss, B. Bederson, Phys. Rev. A 21, 808 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dhez, P.

B. Carré, G. Spiess, J. M. Bizau, P. Dhez, P. Gérard, F. Wuilleumier, J. C. Keller, J. L. LeGouët, J. L. Picqué, D. L. Ederer, P. M. Koch, Opt. Commun. 52, 29 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ederer, D. L.

B. Carré, G. Spiess, J. M. Bizau, P. Dhez, P. Gérard, F. Wuilleumier, J. C. Keller, J. L. LeGouët, J. L. Picqué, D. L. Ederer, P. M. Koch, Opt. Commun. 52, 29 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Engleman, R.

Gérard, P.

B. Carré, G. Spiess, J. M. Bizau, P. Dhez, P. Gérard, F. Wuilleumier, J. C. Keller, J. L. LeGouët, J. L. Picqué, D. L. Ederer, P. M. Koch, Opt. Commun. 52, 29 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gerhardt, H.

H. Gerhardt, R. Wenz, E. Matthias, Phys. Lett. 61A, 377 (1977).

Goring, S.

G. Nowicki, K. Bekk, S. Goring, A. Hanser, H. Rebel, G. Schatz, Phys. Rev. C 18, 2369 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hager, J.

W. Ohnesorge, J. Hager, H. Walther, AIP Conf. Ser. 71, 37 (1984).

Hanne, G. F.

G. F. Hanne, V. Nickich, M. Sohn, J. Phys. B 18, 2037 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

X. Hui-Rong, S. V. Benson, T. W. Hänsch, Laser Focus 17(3), 54 (1981).

Hanser, A.

G. Nowicki, K. Bekk, S. Goring, A. Hanser, H. Rebel, G. Schatz, Phys. Rev. C 18, 2369 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, I. V.

I. V. Hertel, W. Stoll, J. Phys. B 7, 583 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hui-Rong, X.

X. Hui-Rong, S. V. Benson, T. W. Hänsch, Laser Focus 17(3), 54 (1981).

Jaduszliwer, B.

B. Jaduszliwer, R. Dang, P. Weiss, B. Bederson, Phys. Rev. A 21, 808 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Keller, J. C.

B. Carré, G. Spiess, J. M. Bizau, P. Dhez, P. Gérard, F. Wuilleumier, J. C. Keller, J. L. LeGouët, J. L. Picqué, D. L. Ederer, P. M. Koch, Opt. Commun. 52, 29 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Keller, R. A.

Kelley, F. M.

F. M. Kelley, M. S. Mathur, Can. J. Phys. 55, 83 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Koch, P. M.

B. Carré, G. Spiess, J. M. Bizau, P. Dhez, P. Gérard, F. Wuilleumier, J. C. Keller, J. L. LeGouët, J. L. Picqué, D. L. Ederer, P. M. Koch, Opt. Commun. 52, 29 (1984).
[CrossRef]

LeGouët, J. L.

B. Carré, G. Spiess, J. M. Bizau, P. Dhez, P. Gérard, F. Wuilleumier, J. C. Keller, J. L. LeGouët, J. L. Picqué, D. L. Ederer, P. M. Koch, Opt. Commun. 52, 29 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mallard, W. G.

J. C. Travis, P. K. Schenck, G. C. Turk, W. G. Mallard, Anal. Chem. 51, 1516 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mathur, M. S.

F. M. Kelley, M. S. Mathur, Can. J. Phys. 55, 83 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, E.

H. Gerhardt, R. Wenz, E. Matthias, Phys. Lett. 61A, 377 (1977).

McGuire, E. J.

E. J. McGuire, Phys. Rev. A 20, 445 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nickich, V.

G. F. Hanne, V. Nickich, M. Sohn, J. Phys. B 18, 2037 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nowicki, G.

G. Nowicki, K. Bekk, S. Goring, A. Hanser, H. Rebel, G. Schatz, Phys. Rev. C 18, 2369 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ohnesorge, W.

W. Ohnesorge, J. Hager, H. Walther, AIP Conf. Ser. 71, 37 (1984).

Okudaira, S.

S. Okudaira, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 29, 409 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Picqué, J. L.

B. Carré, G. Spiess, J. M. Bizau, P. Dhez, P. Gérard, F. Wuilleumier, J. C. Keller, J. L. LeGouët, J. L. Picqué, D. L. Ederer, P. M. Koch, Opt. Commun. 52, 29 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rebel, H.

G. Nowicki, K. Bekk, S. Goring, A. Hanser, H. Rebel, G. Schatz, Phys. Rev. C 18, 2369 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G.

G. Nowicki, K. Bekk, S. Goring, A. Hanser, H. Rebel, G. Schatz, Phys. Rev. C 18, 2369 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Schenck, P. K.

J. C. Travis, P. K. Schenck, G. C. Turk, W. G. Mallard, Anal. Chem. 51, 1516 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, M.

G. F. Hanne, V. Nickich, M. Sohn, J. Phys. B 18, 2037 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Spiess, G.

B. Carré, G. Spiess, J. M. Bizau, P. Dhez, P. Gérard, F. Wuilleumier, J. C. Keller, J. L. LeGouët, J. L. Picqué, D. L. Ederer, P. M. Koch, Opt. Commun. 52, 29 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Stoll, W.

I. V. Hertel, W. Stoll, J. Phys. B 7, 583 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Travis, J. C.

J. C. Travis, P. K. Schenck, G. C. Turk, W. G. Mallard, Anal. Chem. 51, 1516 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Turk, G. C.

J. C. Travis, P. K. Schenck, G. C. Turk, W. G. Mallard, Anal. Chem. 51, 1516 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

W. Ohnesorge, J. Hager, H. Walther, AIP Conf. Ser. 71, 37 (1984).

Weiss, P.

B. Jaduszliwer, R. Dang, P. Weiss, B. Bederson, Phys. Rev. A 21, 808 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wenz, R.

H. Gerhardt, R. Wenz, E. Matthias, Phys. Lett. 61A, 377 (1977).

Whitaker, T. J.

Wuilleumier, F.

B. Carré, G. Spiess, J. M. Bizau, P. Dhez, P. Gérard, F. Wuilleumier, J. C. Keller, J. L. LeGouët, J. L. Picqué, D. L. Ederer, P. M. Koch, Opt. Commun. 52, 29 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Zalewski, E. F.

AIP Conf. Ser.

W. Ohnesorge, J. Hager, H. Walther, AIP Conf. Ser. 71, 37 (1984).

Anal. Chem.

J. C. Travis, P. K. Schenck, G. C. Turk, W. G. Mallard, Anal. Chem. 51, 1516 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys.

F. M. Kelley, M. S. Mathur, Can. J. Phys. 55, 83 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. B

G. F. Hanne, V. Nickich, M. Sohn, J. Phys. B 18, 2037 (1985).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Hertel, W. Stoll, J. Phys. B 7, 583 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

S. Okudaira, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 29, 409 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus

X. Hui-Rong, S. V. Benson, T. W. Hänsch, Laser Focus 17(3), 54 (1981).

Opt. Commun.

B. Carré, G. Spiess, J. M. Bizau, P. Dhez, P. Gérard, F. Wuilleumier, J. C. Keller, J. L. LeGouët, J. L. Picqué, D. L. Ederer, P. M. Koch, Opt. Commun. 52, 29 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett.

H. Gerhardt, R. Wenz, E. Matthias, Phys. Lett. 61A, 377 (1977).

Phys. Rev. A

B. Jaduszliwer, R. Dang, P. Weiss, B. Bederson, Phys. Rev. A 21, 808 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. J. McGuire, Phys. Rev. A 20, 445 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. C

G. Nowicki, K. Bekk, S. Goring, A. Hanser, H. Rebel, G. Schatz, Phys. Rev. C 18, 2369 (1978).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus for laser-enhanced EI ionization mass spectrometry. The dye-laser stabilization system is described in the text. Excitation polarization is controlled by a Glan–Thompson polarizer (P) and two Fresnel rhomb quarter-wave retarders (FR1, FR2). P alone produces linear polarization; P and FR1 produce circular polarization; and P, FR2 (no FR1), and the retroreflecting mirror (RM) produce counterpropagating crossed linear (pseudo-random) polarization. DAC’s, digital-to-analog converters; CFI, confocal interferometer; MC’s, monochromators; PMT’s, photomultiplier tubes; QMA, quadrupole mass analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Observed relative ionization rates for the ground (open circles) and 6s6p 1P1 excited (filled circles) states of 138Ba as a function of electron energy. Values are corrected for the relative populations of the two states in the saturated optical excitation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical spectra of the individual barium isotopes obtained from a sample containing natural abundances (given in parentheses). The upper reference spectrum contains all the isotopes (no mass discrimination). The individual isotopic spectra have been normalized to their individual maximum peak heights and isotopic abundances. The peak labels given are the observed shift from 138Ba in megahertz. Mean electron energy, 4.0 eV.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of excitation polarization on the observed hyperfine structure in 137Ba. The top trace is with crossed linear polarizations, the middle is with simple linear polarization, and the bottom with circular polarization. Mean electron energy, 3.5 eV.

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