Abstract

Evidence of coherence effects has been observed in the Zeeman sublevels by means of nonlinear level crossing in a metastable Ca beam with resonance width 3 orders of magnitude less than the radiative linewidth of the investigated transitions. By using two separate traveling waves, Ramsey-like fringes have been observed. The final measured are determined by the transit time, are weakly dependent on the magnetic-field inhomogeneities, and are widths independent of the natural width of the optical transitions and the laser bandwidth.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Bloembergen, Y. H. Zou, L. J. Rothberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 186 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Mlynek, Chr. Tamm, E. Buhr, N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1814 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Fukuda, J. Hayashi, K. Kondo, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 38, 357 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Bertuccelli, N. Beverini, M. Galli, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, G. Giusfredi, Opt. Lett. 10, 270 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. See, e.g., M. S. Feld, A. Sanchez, A. Javan, B. J. Feldman, in Proceedings of the Aussois Conference on High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy (Colloques Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1973), pp. 87–104.
  6. N. Beverini, K. Ernst, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, Appl. Phys. B37, 17 (1985).
  7. M. Inguscio, A. Moretti, F. Strumia, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 955 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Strumia, J. Phys. (Paris) C7, 117 (1983).
  9. G. Giusfredi, P. Minguzzi, F. Strumia, M. Tonelli, Z. Phys. A274, 279 (1975).
  10. N. F. RamseyMolecular Beams (Oxford U. Press, London, 1956), pp. 124–134.
  11. J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. C. Barger, J. C. Bergquist, T. C. English, D. L. Glaze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 850 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. See, e.g., D. P. O’Brian, P. Meystre, H. Walther, Adv. Atom. Molec. Phys. 21 (1985).
  14. J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hammer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Beverini, M. Galli, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, in Laser Spectroscopy VIIT. W. Hänsch, Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 285–286.

1985 (4)

N. Beverini, K. Ernst, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, Appl. Phys. B37, 17 (1985).

See, e.g., D. P. O’Brian, P. Meystre, H. Walther, Adv. Atom. Molec. Phys. 21 (1985).

N. Bloembergen, Y. H. Zou, L. J. Rothberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 186 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bertuccelli, N. Beverini, M. Galli, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, G. Giusfredi, Opt. Lett. 10, 270 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

J. Mlynek, Chr. Tamm, E. Buhr, N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1814 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

F. Strumia, J. Phys. (Paris) C7, 117 (1983).

1982 (1)

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hammer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Y. Fukuda, J. Hayashi, K. Kondo, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 38, 357 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

M. Inguscio, A. Moretti, F. Strumia, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 955 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. C. Barger, J. C. Bergquist, T. C. English, D. L. Glaze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 850 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

G. Giusfredi, P. Minguzzi, F. Strumia, M. Tonelli, Z. Phys. A274, 279 (1975).

Barger, R. C.

R. C. Barger, J. C. Bergquist, T. C. English, D. L. Glaze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 850 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

R. C. Barger, J. C. Bergquist, T. C. English, D. L. Glaze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 850 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bertuccelli, G.

Beverini, N.

G. Bertuccelli, N. Beverini, M. Galli, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, G. Giusfredi, Opt. Lett. 10, 270 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Beverini, K. Ernst, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, Appl. Phys. B37, 17 (1985).

N. Beverini, M. Galli, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, in Laser Spectroscopy VIIT. W. Hänsch, Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 285–286.

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, Y. H. Zou, L. J. Rothberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 186 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buhr, E.

J. Mlynek, Chr. Tamm, E. Buhr, N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1814 (1984).
[CrossRef]

English, T. C.

R. C. Barger, J. C. Bergquist, T. C. English, D. L. Glaze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 850 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ernst, K.

N. Beverini, K. Ernst, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, Appl. Phys. B37, 17 (1985).

Ezekiel, S.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hammer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

See, e.g., M. S. Feld, A. Sanchez, A. Javan, B. J. Feldman, in Proceedings of the Aussois Conference on High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy (Colloques Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1973), pp. 87–104.

Feldman, B. J.

See, e.g., M. S. Feld, A. Sanchez, A. Javan, B. J. Feldman, in Proceedings of the Aussois Conference on High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy (Colloques Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1973), pp. 87–104.

Fukuda, Y.

Y. Fukuda, J. Hayashi, K. Kondo, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 38, 357 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Galli, M.

G. Bertuccelli, N. Beverini, M. Galli, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, G. Giusfredi, Opt. Lett. 10, 270 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Beverini, M. Galli, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, in Laser Spectroscopy VIIT. W. Hänsch, Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 285–286.

Giusfredi, G.

Glaze, D. L.

R. C. Barger, J. C. Bergquist, T. C. English, D. L. Glaze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 850 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, P. R.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hammer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hashi, T.

Y. Fukuda, J. Hayashi, K. Kondo, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 38, 357 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, J.

Y. Fukuda, J. Hayashi, K. Kondo, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 38, 357 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

G. Bertuccelli, N. Beverini, M. Galli, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, G. Giusfredi, Opt. Lett. 10, 270 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Beverini, K. Ernst, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, Appl. Phys. B37, 17 (1985).

M. Inguscio, A. Moretti, F. Strumia, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 955 (1980).
[CrossRef]

N. Beverini, M. Galli, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, in Laser Spectroscopy VIIT. W. Hänsch, Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 285–286.

Javan, A.

See, e.g., M. S. Feld, A. Sanchez, A. Javan, B. J. Feldman, in Proceedings of the Aussois Conference on High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy (Colloques Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1973), pp. 87–104.

Kondo, K.

Y. Fukuda, J. Hayashi, K. Kondo, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 38, 357 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. A.

J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Leiby, C. C.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hammer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Meystre, P.

See, e.g., D. P. O’Brian, P. Meystre, H. Walther, Adv. Atom. Molec. Phys. 21 (1985).

Minguzzi, P.

G. Giusfredi, P. Minguzzi, F. Strumia, M. Tonelli, Z. Phys. A274, 279 (1975).

Mlynek, J.

J. Mlynek, Chr. Tamm, E. Buhr, N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1814 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, A.

M. Inguscio, A. Moretti, F. Strumia, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 955 (1980).
[CrossRef]

O’Brian, D. P.

See, e.g., D. P. O’Brian, P. Meystre, H. Walther, Adv. Atom. Molec. Phys. 21 (1985).

Picard, R. H.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hammer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, N. F.

N. F. RamseyMolecular Beams (Oxford U. Press, London, 1956), pp. 124–134.

Rothberg, L. J.

N. Bloembergen, Y. H. Zou, L. J. Rothberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 186 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez, A.

See, e.g., M. S. Feld, A. Sanchez, A. Javan, B. J. Feldman, in Proceedings of the Aussois Conference on High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy (Colloques Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1973), pp. 87–104.

Strumia, F.

N. Beverini, K. Ernst, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, Appl. Phys. B37, 17 (1985).

G. Bertuccelli, N. Beverini, M. Galli, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, G. Giusfredi, Opt. Lett. 10, 270 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Strumia, J. Phys. (Paris) C7, 117 (1983).

M. Inguscio, A. Moretti, F. Strumia, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 955 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. Giusfredi, P. Minguzzi, F. Strumia, M. Tonelli, Z. Phys. A274, 279 (1975).

N. Beverini, M. Galli, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, in Laser Spectroscopy VIIT. W. Hänsch, Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 285–286.

Tamm, Chr.

J. Mlynek, Chr. Tamm, E. Buhr, N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1814 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J. E.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hammer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, M.

G. Giusfredi, P. Minguzzi, F. Strumia, M. Tonelli, Z. Phys. A274, 279 (1975).

Walther, H.

See, e.g., D. P. O’Brian, P. Meystre, H. Walther, Adv. Atom. Molec. Phys. 21 (1985).

Willis, C. R.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hammer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wong, N. C.

J. Mlynek, Chr. Tamm, E. Buhr, N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1814 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Zou, Y. H.

N. Bloembergen, Y. H. Zou, L. J. Rothberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 186 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Atom. Molec. Phys. (1)

See, e.g., D. P. O’Brian, P. Meystre, H. Walther, Adv. Atom. Molec. Phys. 21 (1985).

Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Beverini, K. Ernst, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, Appl. Phys. B37, 17 (1985).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. C. Barger, J. C. Bergquist, T. C. English, D. L. Glaze, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 850 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Inguscio, A. Moretti, F. Strumia, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 955 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (Paris) (1)

F. Strumia, J. Phys. (Paris) C7, 117 (1983).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Fukuda, J. Hayashi, K. Kondo, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 38, 357 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

N. Bloembergen, Y. H. Zou, L. J. Rothberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 186 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mlynek, Chr. Tamm, E. Buhr, N. C. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1814 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hammer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

G. Giusfredi, P. Minguzzi, F. Strumia, M. Tonelli, Z. Phys. A274, 279 (1975).

Other (3)

N. F. RamseyMolecular Beams (Oxford U. Press, London, 1956), pp. 124–134.

See, e.g., M. S. Feld, A. Sanchez, A. Javan, B. J. Feldman, in Proceedings of the Aussois Conference on High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy (Colloques Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1973), pp. 87–104.

N. Beverini, M. Galli, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, in Laser Spectroscopy VIIT. W. Hänsch, Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 285–286.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a, Scheme of the apparatus used to investigate coherence resonances (nonlinear Hanle effect) or population effects on a metastable Ca atomic beam. b, A simplified atomic-energy-level scheme. PM, photomultiplier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical recordings of nonlinear Hanle effect on the 3P13S1 612.2-nm transition of Ca, using laser polarization orthogonal to the static magnetic field B. a, Single interaction region (d = 6 mm); b, two separate interaction regions (L = 32mm, d = 6mm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of Ramsey fringes FWHM on the separation of the laser beams, L. The asterisk corresponds to a point from Ref. 1 obtained using one single interaction region but expanding the laser beam to d = 22 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ramsey fringes observed on the Ca 616.2-nm transition (derivative signal; L = 39 mm).

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