Abstract

The differential scattering cross section of single ice crystals is measured for the first reported time. The data plainly show the single ice crystal scattering that in the atmosphere gives rise to the 22° and 46° halos. The measurements also indicate how the rarely observed anomalous halos might be formed.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Greenler, Rainbows, Halos and Glories (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1980).
  2. R. A. R. Tricker, Introduction to Meteorological Optics (American Elsevier, New York, 1970).
  3. R. A. R. Tricker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1093 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. K. Lynch, Sci. Am. 238, 144 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Cai, K.-N. Liou, Appl. Opt. 21, 3569 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Takano, K. Jayaweera, Appl. Opt. 24, 3254 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. P. Dugin, O. A. Volkovitskiy, S. O. Mirumyants, N. K. Nikiforova, Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 13, 22 (1977).
  8. K. Sassen, K. N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 838 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. F. Wuerker, H. Shelton, R. V. Langmiur, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 342 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Philip, F. Gelbard, S. Arnold, J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 91, 507 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. V. Hobbs, Ice Physics (Clarendon, Oxford, 1974).
  12. S. G. Warren, Appl. Opt. 23, 1206 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

M. A. Philip, F. Gelbard, S. Arnold, J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 91, 507 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1979 (3)

R. A. R. Tricker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1093 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Lynch, Sci. Am. 238, 144 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, K. N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 838 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

V. P. Dugin, O. A. Volkovitskiy, S. O. Mirumyants, N. K. Nikiforova, Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 13, 22 (1977).

1959 (1)

R. F. Wuerker, H. Shelton, R. V. Langmiur, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 342 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

M. A. Philip, F. Gelbard, S. Arnold, J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 91, 507 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Q.

Dugin, V. P.

V. P. Dugin, O. A. Volkovitskiy, S. O. Mirumyants, N. K. Nikiforova, Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 13, 22 (1977).

Gelbard, F.

M. A. Philip, F. Gelbard, S. Arnold, J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 91, 507 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Greenler, R.

R. Greenler, Rainbows, Halos and Glories (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1980).

Hobbs, P. V.

P. V. Hobbs, Ice Physics (Clarendon, Oxford, 1974).

Jayaweera, K.

Langmiur, R. V.

R. F. Wuerker, H. Shelton, R. V. Langmiur, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 342 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K. N.

K. Sassen, K. N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 838 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K.-N.

Lynch, D. K.

D. K. Lynch, Sci. Am. 238, 144 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mirumyants, S. O.

V. P. Dugin, O. A. Volkovitskiy, S. O. Mirumyants, N. K. Nikiforova, Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 13, 22 (1977).

Nikiforova, N. K.

V. P. Dugin, O. A. Volkovitskiy, S. O. Mirumyants, N. K. Nikiforova, Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 13, 22 (1977).

Philip, M. A.

M. A. Philip, F. Gelbard, S. Arnold, J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 91, 507 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sassen, K.

K. Sassen, K. N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 838 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, H.

R. F. Wuerker, H. Shelton, R. V. Langmiur, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 342 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Takano, Y.

Tricker, R. A. R.

R. A. R. Tricker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1093 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. A. R. Tricker, Introduction to Meteorological Optics (American Elsevier, New York, 1970).

Volkovitskiy, O. A.

V. P. Dugin, O. A. Volkovitskiy, S. O. Mirumyants, N. K. Nikiforova, Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 13, 22 (1977).

Warren, S. G.

Wuerker, R. F.

R. F. Wuerker, H. Shelton, R. V. Langmiur, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 342 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. (1)

V. P. Dugin, O. A. Volkovitskiy, S. O. Mirumyants, N. K. Nikiforova, Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 13, 22 (1977).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. F. Wuerker, H. Shelton, R. V. Langmiur, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 342 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

K. Sassen, K. N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 838 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid. Interface Sci. (1)

M. A. Philip, F. Gelbard, S. Arnold, J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 91, 507 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Sci. Am. (1)

D. K. Lynch, Sci. Am. 238, 144 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. V. Hobbs, Ice Physics (Clarendon, Oxford, 1974).

R. Greenler, Rainbows, Halos and Glories (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1980).

R. A. R. Tricker, Introduction to Meteorological Optics (American Elsevier, New York, 1970).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of particle-scattering apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scattering from a complex-combination-of-columns ice crystal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scattering from a bullet ice crystal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same crystal as Fig. 3 rotated to measure a different aspect.

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