Abstract

Optical ranging using femtosecond laser pulses and nonlinear-optical cross correlation is demonstrated for the investigation of the microstructure of biological systems. By using pulses of 65-fsec duration generated by a colliding-pulse mode-locked ring dye laser, a spatial resolution of less than 15 μm is achieved with a detection sensitivity to remitted signals as small as 10−7 of the incident pulse energy. This technique is applied to measure the cornea in rabbit eyes in vivo as well as to investigate the epidermal structure of human skin in vitro.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. A. Duguay, A. T. Mattick, Appl. Opt. 10, 2162 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. A. Duguay, Am. Sci. 59, 551 (1971).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  11. E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, in Ultrashort Light Pulses: Picosecond Techniques and Applications, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 83–122.

1981 (3)

1978 (2)

1975 (2)

H. Mahr, M. D. Hirsch, Opt. Commun. 13, 96 (1975).
[Crossref]

G. E. Busch, K. S. Greve, G. L. Olson, R. P. Jones, P.M. Rentzepis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 450 (1975).
[Crossref]

1971 (2)

1968 (1)

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 178 (1968).
[Crossref]

Abramson, N.

Bruckner, A. P.

Busch, G. E.

G. E. Busch, K. S. Greve, G. L. Olson, R. P. Jones, P.M. Rentzepis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 450 (1975).
[Crossref]

Chodorow, M.

Diels, J.-C.

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, Am. Sci. 59, 551 (1971).

M. A. Duguay, A. T. Mattick, Appl. Opt. 10, 2162 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 178 (1968).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, J. J.

Fork, R. L.

R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 671 (1981).
[Crossref]

Greene, B. I.

R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 671 (1981).
[Crossref]

Greve, K. S.

G. E. Busch, K. S. Greve, G. L. Olson, R. P. Jones, P.M. Rentzepis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 450 (1975).
[Crossref]

Hansen, J. W.

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 178 (1968).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, M. D.

H. Mahr, M. D. Hirsch, Opt. Commun. 13, 96 (1975).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, in Ultrashort Light Pulses: Picosecond Techniques and Applications, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 83–122.

Jones, R. P.

G. E. Busch, K. S. Greve, G. L. Olson, R. P. Jones, P.M. Rentzepis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 450 (1975).
[Crossref]

Kompfner, R.

Mahr, H.

H. Mahr, M. D. Hirsch, Opt. Commun. 13, 96 (1975).
[Crossref]

Mattick, A. T.

Olson, G. L.

G. E. Busch, K. S. Greve, G. L. Olson, R. P. Jones, P.M. Rentzepis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 450 (1975).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

Rentzepis, P.M.

G. E. Busch, K. S. Greve, G. L. Olson, R. P. Jones, P.M. Rentzepis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 450 (1975).
[Crossref]

Sallaba, H.

Shank, C. V.

R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 671 (1981).
[Crossref]

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, in Ultrashort Light Pulses: Picosecond Techniques and Applications, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 83–122.

Wang, C.-Y.

Am. Sci. (1)

M. A. Duguay, Am. Sci. 59, 551 (1971).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. E. Busch, K. S. Greve, G. L. Olson, R. P. Jones, P.M. Rentzepis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 450 (1975).
[Crossref]

R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 671 (1981).
[Crossref]

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 178 (1968).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Mahr, M. D. Hirsch, Opt. Commun. 13, 96 (1975).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, in Ultrashort Light Pulses: Picosecond Techniques and Applications, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 83–122.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of femtosecond optical ranging experiment. BS, beam splitter; PMT, photomultiplier tube; XTAL, nonlinear crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatial resolution of optical ranging. Cross-correlation trace obtained using a sample consisting of two microscope slides separated by a steel spacer of about 40-μm thickness. Two reflections are produced by the glass–air boundaries.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical ranging measurement of the cornea of the rabbit eye performed in vivo.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Histology of the skin specimen. The specimen was quick frozen in OCT compound (Apex Company, Division of Miles Laboratories) and stored at −70°C. Sections of 4-μm thickness were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. (b) Optical ranging measurement of human skin performed on the specimen shown in (a).

Equations (1)

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S ( τ ) ~ - I s ( t ) I r ( t - τ ) d t .

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