Abstract

We demonstrate that monolayer detection by optical second-harmonic generation is possible even with a 20-mW cw diode laser. Using a focused scanning laser beam, we also demonstrate a new method of monolayer surface microscopy. The same experiments suggest the possibility of an optical monolayer memory device.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, Y. R. Shen, Laser Focus 19(5), 101 (1983).
  2. See, for example, M. Dalhaye, P. Dhamelin, J. Raman Spectrosc. 3, 33 (1975); J. L. Abraham, E. S. Etz, Science 207, 716 (1979); M. D. Duncan, J. Peintjes, T. J. Manuccia, Opt. Lett. 7, 35 (1983); G. Veith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1045 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. See, for example, J. F. Ready, Effects of High-Power Laser Radiation (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 3; M. Bertolotti, ed., Physical Process in Laser–Materials Interaction (Plenum, New York, 1983); H. S. Carlslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1959).
  5. J. R. Meyer, M. R. Kruer, F. J. Bartolli, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 5513 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Lax, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3919 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968); C. W. Wang, A. N. Duminski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 663 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. T. Boyd, Y. R. Shen, T. W. Hänsch, presented at the Seventh International Conference on Lasers Spectroscopy, June 24–28, 1985, Maui, Hawaii.
  9. C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Richard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Mousher, S. V. Chenkolin, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 257 (1981).
  11. G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 510 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Dulcic, Chem. Phys. 37, 57 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. H. Brown, ed., Photochromism (Wiley, New York, 1971).

1984 (1)

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 510 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, Y. R. Shen, Laser Focus 19(5), 101 (1983).

1982 (1)

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Richard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Mousher, S. V. Chenkolin, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 257 (1981).

1980 (1)

J. R. Meyer, M. R. Kruer, F. J. Bartolli, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 5513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

A. Dulcic, Chem. Phys. 37, 57 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

M. Lax, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3919 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

See, for example, M. Dalhaye, P. Dhamelin, J. Raman Spectrosc. 3, 33 (1975); J. L. Abraham, E. S. Etz, Science 207, 716 (1979); M. D. Duncan, J. Peintjes, T. J. Manuccia, Opt. Lett. 7, 35 (1983); G. Veith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1045 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968); C. W. Wang, A. N. Duminski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 663 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bartolli, F. J.

J. R. Meyer, M. R. Kruer, F. J. Bartolli, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 5513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968); C. W. Wang, A. N. Duminski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 663 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. T.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 510 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, Y. R. Shen, T. W. Hänsch, presented at the Seventh International Conference on Lasers Spectroscopy, June 24–28, 1985, Maui, Hawaii.

Chang, R. K.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968); C. W. Wang, A. N. Duminski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 663 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. K.

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Richard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chenkolin, S. V.

V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Mousher, S. V. Chenkolin, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 257 (1981).

Dalhaye, M.

See, for example, M. Dalhaye, P. Dhamelin, J. Raman Spectrosc. 3, 33 (1975); J. L. Abraham, E. S. Etz, Science 207, 716 (1979); M. D. Duncan, J. Peintjes, T. J. Manuccia, Opt. Lett. 7, 35 (1983); G. Veith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1045 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dhamelin, P.

See, for example, M. Dalhaye, P. Dhamelin, J. Raman Spectrosc. 3, 33 (1975); J. L. Abraham, E. S. Etz, Science 207, 716 (1979); M. D. Duncan, J. Peintjes, T. J. Manuccia, Opt. Lett. 7, 35 (1983); G. Veith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1045 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dulcic, A.

A. Dulcic, Chem. Phys. 37, 57 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

G. T. Boyd, Y. R. Shen, T. W. Hänsch, presented at the Seventh International Conference on Lasers Spectroscopy, June 24–28, 1985, Maui, Hawaii.

Heinz, T. F.

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, Y. R. Shen, Laser Focus 19(5), 101 (1983).

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Richard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jha, S. S.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968); C. W. Wang, A. N. Duminski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 663 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kruer, M. R.

J. R. Meyer, M. R. Kruer, F. J. Bartolli, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 5513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lax, M.

M. Lax, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3919 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968); C. W. Wang, A. N. Duminski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 663 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Leite, J. R. R.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 510 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Mousher, S. V. Chenkolin, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 257 (1981).

Meyer, J. R.

J. R. Meyer, M. R. Kruer, F. J. Bartolli, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 5513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mousher, V. G.

V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Mousher, S. V. Chenkolin, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 257 (1981).

Rasing, Th.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 510 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ready, J. F.

See, for example, J. F. Ready, Effects of High-Power Laser Radiation (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 3; M. Bertolotti, ed., Physical Process in Laser–Materials Interaction (Plenum, New York, 1983); H. S. Carlslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1959).

Richard, D.

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Richard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 510 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, Y. R. Shen, Laser Focus 19(5), 101 (1983).

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Richard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, Y. R. Shen, T. W. Hänsch, presented at the Seventh International Conference on Lasers Spectroscopy, June 24–28, 1985, Maui, Hawaii.

Tom, H. W. K.

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, Y. R. Shen, Laser Focus 19(5), 101 (1983).

Chem. Phys. (1)

A. Dulcic, Chem. Phys. 37, 57 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. R. Meyer, M. R. Kruer, F. J. Bartolli, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 5513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Lax, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3919 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

See, for example, M. Dalhaye, P. Dhamelin, J. Raman Spectrosc. 3, 33 (1975); J. L. Abraham, E. S. Etz, Science 207, 716 (1979); M. D. Duncan, J. Peintjes, T. J. Manuccia, Opt. Lett. 7, 35 (1983); G. Veith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1045 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus (1)

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, Y. R. Shen, Laser Focus 19(5), 101 (1983).

Phys. Rev. (1)

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968); C. W. Wang, A. N. Duminski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 663 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 510 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Richard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Mousher, S. V. Chenkolin, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 257 (1981).

Other (3)

See, for example, J. F. Ready, Effects of High-Power Laser Radiation (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 3; M. Bertolotti, ed., Physical Process in Laser–Materials Interaction (Plenum, New York, 1983); H. S. Carlslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1959).

G. T. Boyd, Y. R. Shen, T. W. Hänsch, presented at the Seventh International Conference on Lasers Spectroscopy, June 24–28, 1985, Maui, Hawaii.

G. H. Brown, ed., Photochromism (Wiley, New York, 1971).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SH intensity (top) from Ag electrode and cell current (bottom) versus time. Ag bias potentials are relative to a standard calomel electrode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SH image of an ablated hole in a Rhodamine 6G dye monolayer. Inset: a high-resolution scan of the region bracketed by the rectangle. Circles are a theoretical fit assuming a step on the surface.

Equations (3)

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S β P 2 A T p T R ( photons / sec ) , β 64 π 3 ω c 3 | | N A α ( 2 ) | | 2 .
S p β ( Q L α ) 2 A T p T R ,
S c w β ( 2 Q K α C ) 2 ,

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