Abstract

We report the observation of enhanced fluorescence from molecules deposited on the surface of an optical waveguide structure. We attribute the enhancement to the near-field interaction between the Rhodamine B molecules and the waveguide’s modal fields. The process does not require the use of prism or grating couplers and can give rise to an enhancement factor in excess of 2 orders of magnitude.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. H. Drexhage, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1974), Vol. 12, p. 163.
  2. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, in Advances in Chemical Physics, I. Prigogine, S. A. Rice, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978), Vol. 37, p. 1.
  3. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, Phys. Rev. A 12, 1448 (1975).
  4. W. H. Weber, C. F. Eagen, Opt. Lett. 4, 236 (1979).
  5. I. Pockrand, A. Brillante, D. Mobius, Chem. Phys. Lett. 69, 499 (1980).
  6. Y. M. Gerbshtein, I. A. Merkulov, D. N. Mirlin, JETP Lett. 22, 35 (1976).
  7. W. R. Holland, D. G. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1041 (1984).
  8. M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 123 (1974); R. K. Chang, T. E. Furtak, eds., Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (Plenum, New York, 1982).
  9. A. M. Glass, P. F. Liap, J. G. Bergman, D. H. Olson, Opt. Lett. 5, 368 (1980).
  10. D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, C. D. Hanson, T. J. Gramila, J. I. Gersten, Opt. Lett. 7, 89 (1982).
  11. Adams et al. previously observed molecular decay into surface waves: A. Adams, J. Moreland, P. K. Hansma, Z. Schlesinger, Phys. Rev. B 25, 3457 (1982).
  12. Weitz et al. have discussed these effects in connection with molecules on island-films: D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324 (1983).
  13. G. W. Ford, W. H. Weber, Physics Rep. 113, 195 (1984).
  14. P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
  15. R. Ulrich, W. Prettl, Appl. Phys. 1, 55 (1973).

1984

W. R. Holland, D. G. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1041 (1984).

G. W. Ford, W. H. Weber, Physics Rep. 113, 195 (1984).

1983

Weitz et al. have discussed these effects in connection with molecules on island-films: D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324 (1983).

1982

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, C. D. Hanson, T. J. Gramila, J. I. Gersten, Opt. Lett. 7, 89 (1982).

Adams et al. previously observed molecular decay into surface waves: A. Adams, J. Moreland, P. K. Hansma, Z. Schlesinger, Phys. Rev. B 25, 3457 (1982).

1980

I. Pockrand, A. Brillante, D. Mobius, Chem. Phys. Lett. 69, 499 (1980).

A. M. Glass, P. F. Liap, J. G. Bergman, D. H. Olson, Opt. Lett. 5, 368 (1980).

1979

1976

Y. M. Gerbshtein, I. A. Merkulov, D. N. Mirlin, JETP Lett. 22, 35 (1976).

1975

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, Phys. Rev. A 12, 1448 (1975).

1974

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 123 (1974); R. K. Chang, T. E. Furtak, eds., Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (Plenum, New York, 1982).

1973

R. Ulrich, W. Prettl, Appl. Phys. 1, 55 (1973).

1972

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).

Adams, A.

Adams et al. previously observed molecular decay into surface waves: A. Adams, J. Moreland, P. K. Hansma, Z. Schlesinger, Phys. Rev. B 25, 3457 (1982).

Bergman, J. G.

Brillante, A.

I. Pockrand, A. Brillante, D. Mobius, Chem. Phys. Lett. 69, 499 (1980).

Chance, R. R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, Phys. Rev. A 12, 1448 (1975).

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, in Advances in Chemical Physics, I. Prigogine, S. A. Rice, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978), Vol. 37, p. 1.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).

Drexhage, K. H.

K. H. Drexhage, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1974), Vol. 12, p. 163.

Eagen, C. F.

Fleischmann, M.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 123 (1974); R. K. Chang, T. E. Furtak, eds., Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (Plenum, New York, 1982).

Ford, G. W.

G. W. Ford, W. H. Weber, Physics Rep. 113, 195 (1984).

Garoff, S.

Weitz et al. have discussed these effects in connection with molecules on island-films: D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324 (1983).

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, C. D. Hanson, T. J. Gramila, J. I. Gersten, Opt. Lett. 7, 89 (1982).

Gerbshtein, Y. M.

Y. M. Gerbshtein, I. A. Merkulov, D. N. Mirlin, JETP Lett. 22, 35 (1976).

Gersten, J. I.

Weitz et al. have discussed these effects in connection with molecules on island-films: D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324 (1983).

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, C. D. Hanson, T. J. Gramila, J. I. Gersten, Opt. Lett. 7, 89 (1982).

Glass, A. M.

Gramila, T. J.

Hall, D. G.

W. R. Holland, D. G. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1041 (1984).

Hansma, P. K.

Adams et al. previously observed molecular decay into surface waves: A. Adams, J. Moreland, P. K. Hansma, Z. Schlesinger, Phys. Rev. B 25, 3457 (1982).

Hanson, C. D.

Hendra, P. J.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 123 (1974); R. K. Chang, T. E. Furtak, eds., Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (Plenum, New York, 1982).

Holland, W. R.

W. R. Holland, D. G. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1041 (1984).

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).

Liap, P. F.

McQuillan, A. J.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 123 (1974); R. K. Chang, T. E. Furtak, eds., Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (Plenum, New York, 1982).

Merkulov, I. A.

Y. M. Gerbshtein, I. A. Merkulov, D. N. Mirlin, JETP Lett. 22, 35 (1976).

Mirlin, D. N.

Y. M. Gerbshtein, I. A. Merkulov, D. N. Mirlin, JETP Lett. 22, 35 (1976).

Mobius, D.

I. Pockrand, A. Brillante, D. Mobius, Chem. Phys. Lett. 69, 499 (1980).

Moreland, J.

Adams et al. previously observed molecular decay into surface waves: A. Adams, J. Moreland, P. K. Hansma, Z. Schlesinger, Phys. Rev. B 25, 3457 (1982).

Nitzan, A.

Weitz et al. have discussed these effects in connection with molecules on island-films: D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324 (1983).

Olson, D. H.

Pockrand, I.

I. Pockrand, A. Brillante, D. Mobius, Chem. Phys. Lett. 69, 499 (1980).

Prettl, W.

R. Ulrich, W. Prettl, Appl. Phys. 1, 55 (1973).

Prock, A.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, Phys. Rev. A 12, 1448 (1975).

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, in Advances in Chemical Physics, I. Prigogine, S. A. Rice, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978), Vol. 37, p. 1.

Schlesinger, Z.

Adams et al. previously observed molecular decay into surface waves: A. Adams, J. Moreland, P. K. Hansma, Z. Schlesinger, Phys. Rev. B 25, 3457 (1982).

Silbey, R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, Phys. Rev. A 12, 1448 (1975).

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, in Advances in Chemical Physics, I. Prigogine, S. A. Rice, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978), Vol. 37, p. 1.

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich, W. Prettl, Appl. Phys. 1, 55 (1973).

Weber, W. H.

G. W. Ford, W. H. Weber, Physics Rep. 113, 195 (1984).

W. H. Weber, C. F. Eagen, Opt. Lett. 4, 236 (1979).

Weitz, D. A.

Weitz et al. have discussed these effects in connection with molecules on island-films: D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324 (1983).

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, C. D. Hanson, T. J. Gramila, J. I. Gersten, Opt. Lett. 7, 89 (1982).

Appl. Phys.

R. Ulrich, W. Prettl, Appl. Phys. 1, 55 (1973).

Chem. Phys. Lett.

I. Pockrand, A. Brillante, D. Mobius, Chem. Phys. Lett. 69, 499 (1980).

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 123 (1974); R. K. Chang, T. E. Furtak, eds., Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (Plenum, New York, 1982).

J. Chem. Phys.

Weitz et al. have discussed these effects in connection with molecules on island-films: D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324 (1983).

JETP Lett.

Y. M. Gerbshtein, I. A. Merkulov, D. N. Mirlin, JETP Lett. 22, 35 (1976).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, Phys. Rev. A 12, 1448 (1975).

Phys. Rev. B

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).

Adams et al. previously observed molecular decay into surface waves: A. Adams, J. Moreland, P. K. Hansma, Z. Schlesinger, Phys. Rev. B 25, 3457 (1982).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

W. R. Holland, D. G. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1041 (1984).

Physics Rep.

G. W. Ford, W. H. Weber, Physics Rep. 113, 195 (1984).

Other

K. H. Drexhage, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1974), Vol. 12, p. 163.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, in Advances in Chemical Physics, I. Prigogine, S. A. Rice, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978), Vol. 37, p. 1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of thin-film geometry used in the present experiment. The silver layer has a thickness of ~50 nm. The thickness of the LiF is varied between 20 and 400 nm. The Rhodamine B layer has a mass thickness of 3 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the experimental arrangement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured enhancement of the fluorescence as a function of the LiF thickness d. IA is the intensity measured in air, and IREF is the intensity measured from a reference sample (dye directly deposited onto an uncoated glass slide). The dashed line is drawn as a guide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated relative decay probabilities (for each of the modes) as a function of the thickness d. Dashed lines are for a perpendicular-oriented dipole coupling with a TM mode. Solid lines are for a parallel-oriented dipole coupling with the TE mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescence intensity Ip, measured in the prism, as a function of the LiF thickness d. The three curves result from the radiative decay of the three lowest-order modes supported by the structure. Curve a, TM0 (surface plasmon); curve b, TE0; curve c, TM1. The dashed lines are drawn as a guide.

Equations (1)

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γ T = γ nr + γ photon ( d ) + γ SW ( d ) + γ LSW ( d ) .

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