Abstract

Low-energy laser irradiation (∼0.15 μJ) on a Rhodamine 6G ethanol droplet (radius, 21.1 μm) flowing in a linear stream has been shown to induce damped oscillations in the wavelengths at which the morphology-dependent resonances (MDR's) in the fluorescence are located. Such oscillatory behavior of the MDR's is consistent with those calculated for the elastic scattering from a large sphere that oscillates with small amplitudes (5 parts in 104) from a sphere to a prolate spheroid and then to an oblate spheroid. The observed damped oscillations provide information on the surface tension and viscosity of an ethanol droplet.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969);C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  2. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Opt. 20, 1803 (1981);A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Opt. 20, 2299 (1981);J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, B. J. Messinger, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 6, 272 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977);A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980);P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980);J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981);S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, C. K. Rushforth, P. R. Conwell, Appl. Opt. 23, 1680 (1984);H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 499 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982);R. Thurn, W. Kiefer, Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 78 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Lamb, Hydrodynamics (Dover, New York, 1945), pp. 475, 639.
  12. P. W. Drussel, M. Kerker, D. D. Cooke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 55 (1979);J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Opt. Lett. 6, 540 (1981);A. B. Pluchino, Appl. Opt. 20, 1986 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. C. Waterman, Phys. Rev. D 3, 825 (1971);P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-30, 168 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. W. Barber, C. Yeh, Appl. Opt. 14, 2864 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1982 (2)

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982);R. Thurn, W. Kiefer, Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 78 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, A. B. Pluchino, Appl. Opt. 21, 4194 (1982);S. Arnold, M. Neuman, A. B. Pluchino, Opt. Lett. 9, 4 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

1980 (2)

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980);J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981);S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, C. K. Rushforth, P. R. Conwell, Appl. Opt. 23, 1680 (1984);H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 499 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Marston, Appl. Opt. 19, 680 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

P. L. Marston, R. E. Apfel, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 68, 280 (1979);J. Acoust Soc. Am. 67, 27 (1980);R. Trinh, A. Zwern, T. G. Wang, J. Fluid Mech. 115, 453 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Drussel, M. Kerker, D. D. Cooke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 55 (1979);J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Opt. Lett. 6, 540 (1981);A. B. Pluchino, Appl. Opt. 20, 1986 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977);A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980);P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

1971 (1)

P. C. Waterman, Phys. Rev. D 3, 825 (1971);P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-30, 168 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

Y. Mori, M. Imabayashi, K. Hijikata, Y. Yoshida, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 12, 571 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Apfel, R. E.

P. L. Marston, R. E. Apfel, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 68, 280 (1979);J. Acoust Soc. Am. 67, 27 (1980);R. Trinh, A. Zwern, T. G. Wang, J. Fluid Mech. 115, 453 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Opt. 20, 1803 (1981);A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Opt. 20, 2299 (1981);J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, B. J. Messinger, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 6, 272 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977);A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980);P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barber, P. W.

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982);R. Thurn, W. Kiefer, Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 78 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980);J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981);S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, C. K. Rushforth, P. R. Conwell, Appl. Opt. 23, 1680 (1984);H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 499 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Barber, C. Yeh, Appl. Opt. 14, 2864 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benner, R. E.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980);J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981);S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, C. K. Rushforth, P. R. Conwell, Appl. Opt. 23, 1680 (1984);H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 499 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 273 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982);R. Thurn, W. Kiefer, Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 78 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980);J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981);S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, C. K. Rushforth, P. R. Conwell, Appl. Opt. 23, 1680 (1984);H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 499 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooke, D. D.

Drussel, P. W.

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Opt. 20, 1803 (1981);A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Opt. 20, 2299 (1981);J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, B. J. Messinger, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 6, 272 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977);A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980);P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hijikata, K.

Y. Mori, M. Imabayashi, K. Hijikata, Y. Yoshida, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 12, 571 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Imabayashi, M.

Y. Mori, M. Imabayashi, K. Hijikata, Y. Yoshida, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 12, 571 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kerker, M.

P. W. Drussel, M. Kerker, D. D. Cooke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 55 (1979);J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Opt. Lett. 6, 540 (1981);A. B. Pluchino, Appl. Opt. 20, 1986 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969);C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Lamb, H.

H. Lamb, Hydrodynamics (Dover, New York, 1945), pp. 475, 639.

Long, M. B.

Marston, P. L.

P. L. Marston, Appl. Opt. 19, 680 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Marston, R. E. Apfel, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 68, 280 (1979);J. Acoust Soc. Am. 67, 27 (1980);R. Trinh, A. Zwern, T. G. Wang, J. Fluid Mech. 115, 453 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

Y. Mori, M. Imabayashi, K. Hijikata, Y. Yoshida, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 12, 571 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Owen, J. F.

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982);R. Thurn, W. Kiefer, Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 78 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980);J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981);S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, C. K. Rushforth, P. R. Conwell, Appl. Opt. 23, 1680 (1984);H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 499 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pluchino, A. B.

Tzeng, H.-M.

Wall, K. F.

Waterman, P. C.

P. C. Waterman, Phys. Rev. D 3, 825 (1971);P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-30, 168 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C.

Yoshida, Y.

Y. Mori, M. Imabayashi, K. Hijikata, Y. Yoshida, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 12, 571 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982);R. Thurn, W. Kiefer, Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 78 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (1)

Y. Mori, M. Imabayashi, K. Hijikata, Y. Yoshida, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 12, 571 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

P. L. Marston, R. E. Apfel, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 68, 280 (1979);J. Acoust Soc. Am. 67, 27 (1980);R. Trinh, A. Zwern, T. G. Wang, J. Fluid Mech. 115, 453 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. D (1)

P. C. Waterman, Phys. Rev. D 3, 825 (1971);P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-30, 168 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977);A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980);P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980);J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981);S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, C. K. Rushforth, P. R. Conwell, Appl. Opt. 23, 1680 (1984);H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 499 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H. Lamb, Hydrodynamics (Dover, New York, 1945), pp. 475, 639.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969);C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental arrangement for the laser-induced shape oscillations of flowing droplets. Two counterpropagating beams (Ar+ laser, 514.5 nm) are focused on the absorbing dye-tagged ethanol droplet. A probe beam (pulsed N2 laser) is focused into a sheet and induces fluorescence from the droplet. The dispersed fluorescence spectra from highly monodispersed droplets in a linear stream are detected by a television camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Timing sequence of the droplet generator frequency, the (Ar+ laser) perturbing pulse, the gated detector, and the (N2 laser) probe beam. The time delay between the perturbing and probe lasers can be varied.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence spectra from laser-perturbed droplets downstream from the orifice. The distance downstream is plotted as time delay after the Ar+ laser perturbation defined as t = 0. Each droplet is perturbed by the Ar+ laser beams at a location indicated by the two arrows.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electrodynamic calculation of the elastic scattering spectra (at 90°) for equivolume droplets oscillating from spheres (S) to slightly oblate (O) or slightly prolate (P) spheroids. As (a/b−1) varies from −1 × 10−3 (oblate) to +1 × 10−3 (prolate), the corresponding MDR wavelengths shift from shorter to longer wavelengths. Two complete cycles of oscillation are shown without any damping of the a/b ratio. The average radius is 25 μm.

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