Abstract

We show that the optical phase-conjugated reflectivity from silver and gold colloids is enhanced by several orders of magnitude. The reflectivity on resonance is comparable with that of CS2 for metal-particle volume concentration of a few parts in 106. We trace this enhancement to the nonlinearities of the electrons in the metal particles and extract the value of their optical Kerr-effect coefficient.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Mie, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 25, 377 (1908).
  2. For a review on composite materials see J. A. A. J. Perenboom, P. Wyder, F. Meier, Phys. Rep. 78, 173 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. See, for instance, Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang, T. E. Furtak, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. See, for instance, C. J. Böttcher, Theory of Electric Polarization (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1973), p. 78.
  5. J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385 (1904); Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 205, 237 (1906).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Landauer, AIP Conf. Proc. 40, 2 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. K. Hale, J. Mater. Sci. 11, 2105 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Genzel, T. P. Martin, O. Kreibig, Z. Phys. B21, 3391 (1975).
  9. J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962); see app.
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. A. Fisher, ed., Optical Phase Conjugation (Academic, New York, 1983).
  11. P. B. Johnson, R. N. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. H. Doremus, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 414 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. W. Hellwarth, Prog. Quantum Electron. 5, 1 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. W. Lewis, W. H. Orttung, J. Phys. Chem. 82, 698 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. K. Burns, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. B 4, 3437 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. C. Rustagi, C. Flytzanis, Opt. Lett. 9, 344 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

For a review on composite materials see J. A. A. J. Perenboom, P. Wyder, F. Meier, Phys. Rep. 78, 173 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

R. Landauer, AIP Conf. Proc. 40, 2 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lewis, W. H. Orttung, J. Phys. Chem. 82, 698 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

R. W. Hellwarth, Prog. Quantum Electron. 5, 1 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

D. K. Hale, J. Mater. Sci. 11, 2105 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

L. Genzel, T. P. Martin, O. Kreibig, Z. Phys. B21, 3391 (1975).

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson, R. N. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

W. K. Burns, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. B 4, 3437 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

R. H. Doremus, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 414 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962); see app.
[CrossRef]

1908 (1)

G. Mie, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 25, 377 (1908).

1904 (1)

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385 (1904); Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 205, 237 (1906).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962); see app.
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

W. K. Burns, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. B 4, 3437 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962); see app.
[CrossRef]

Böttcher, C. J.

See, for instance, C. J. Böttcher, Theory of Electric Polarization (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1973), p. 78.

Burns, W. K.

W. K. Burns, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. B 4, 3437 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. N.

P. B. Johnson, R. N. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Doremus, R. H.

R. H. Doremus, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 414 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962); see app.
[CrossRef]

Flytzanis, C.

Genzel, L.

L. Genzel, T. P. Martin, O. Kreibig, Z. Phys. B21, 3391 (1975).

Hale, D. K.

D. K. Hale, J. Mater. Sci. 11, 2105 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R. W.

R. W. Hellwarth, Prog. Quantum Electron. 5, 1 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson, R. N. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kreibig, O.

L. Genzel, T. P. Martin, O. Kreibig, Z. Phys. B21, 3391 (1975).

Landauer, R.

R. Landauer, AIP Conf. Proc. 40, 2 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, J. W.

J. W. Lewis, W. H. Orttung, J. Phys. Chem. 82, 698 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Martin, T. P.

L. Genzel, T. P. Martin, O. Kreibig, Z. Phys. B21, 3391 (1975).

Maxwell-Garnett, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385 (1904); Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 205, 237 (1906).
[CrossRef]

Meier, F.

For a review on composite materials see J. A. A. J. Perenboom, P. Wyder, F. Meier, Phys. Rep. 78, 173 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mie, G.

G. Mie, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 25, 377 (1908).

Orttung, W. H.

J. W. Lewis, W. H. Orttung, J. Phys. Chem. 82, 698 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Perenboom, J. A. A. J.

For a review on composite materials see J. A. A. J. Perenboom, P. Wyder, F. Meier, Phys. Rep. 78, 173 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pershan, P.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962); see app.
[CrossRef]

Rustagi, K. C.

Wyder, P.

For a review on composite materials see J. A. A. J. Perenboom, P. Wyder, F. Meier, Phys. Rep. 78, 173 (1981).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

R. Landauer, AIP Conf. Proc. 40, 2 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) (1)

G. Mie, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 25, 377 (1908).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. H. Doremus, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 414 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

D. K. Hale, J. Mater. Sci. 11, 2105 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. W. Lewis, W. H. Orttung, J. Phys. Chem. 82, 698 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London (1)

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385 (1904); Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 205, 237 (1906).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

For a review on composite materials see J. A. A. J. Perenboom, P. Wyder, F. Meier, Phys. Rep. 78, 173 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962); see app.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. B. Johnson, R. N. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. B 4, 3437 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. W. Hellwarth, Prog. Quantum Electron. 5, 1 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

L. Genzel, T. P. Martin, O. Kreibig, Z. Phys. B21, 3391 (1975).

Other (3)

R. A. Fisher, ed., Optical Phase Conjugation (Academic, New York, 1983).

See, for instance, Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang, T. E. Furtak, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982).
[CrossRef]

See, for instance, C. J. Böttcher, Theory of Electric Polarization (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1973), p. 78.

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized conjugated signal as a function of the forward or backward pump-pulse delay. Notice that it peaks at zero delay.

Equations (11)

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m ( ω s ) + 2 d ( ω s ) = 0 ,
˜ - d ˜ + 2 d = p m - d m + 2 d .
˜ = d + 3 p d m - d m + 2 d ,
α = 9 p ω c d 3 / 2 m ( m + 2 d ) 2 + m 2 .
δ ˜ = f 2 p δ m ,
f 2 = ( 3 d m + 2 d ) 2 .
δ m = 12 π χ m ( 3 ) E 1 2 ,
E 1 = 3 d m + 2 d E o = f 1 E o .
δ ˜ = 12 π p f 1 4 χ m ( 3 ) E o 2 .
P NLS ( 3 ) = 3 p f 1 4 χ m ( 3 ) E o 3 ,
χ ( 3 ) ( ω , - ω , ω ) = 1.5 × 10 - 8 esu             for gold spheres at 0.53 μ m , χ ( 3 ) ( ω , - ω , ω ) = 2.4 × 10 - 9 esu             for silver spheres at 0.40 μ m .

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