Photorefractive resonators exhibit an extremely small frequency difference (Δω/ω ~ 10−15) between the oscillating and pumping beams. The observed frequency difference is proportional to cavity-length detuning. This dependence is explained by a photorefractive phase shift that is due to slightly nondegenerate two-wave mixing that compensates for cavity detuning and satisfies the round-trip phase condition for steady-state oscillation. The measured onset or threshold of oscillation as a function of photorefractive gain and intensity agrees with theory.
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