Abstract

It is shown experimentally and theoretically that axial gas flow leads to controlled unidirectional operation of a CO2 ring laser. The direction of emission, clockwise or counterclockwise, can be selected by a slight tuning of the laser cavity (∼1% of the free spectral range). The flow velocity required for complete mode extinction depends on the relative magnitudes of the Doppler and homogeneous line widths and is ∼10 m/sec when the two are comparable.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, W. E. Lamb, Laser Physics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974), Chaps. 9 and 11.
  2. F. Aronowitz, Phys. Rev. 139, A635 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. E. Privalov, S. A. Fridrikhov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 97, 377 (1969)[Sov. Phys. Usp. 12, 153 (1969)].
  4. L. N. Menegozzi, W. E. Lamb, Phys. Rev. A 8,2103 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. de Mars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 222 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. S. Moss, D. E. Killick, E. T. de la Perrelle, Infrared Phys. 4, 209 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. W. Rigrod, T. J. Bridges, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 298 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. W. Mocker, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 769 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. R. Faxvog, A. D. Gara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 306 (1974)
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. I. Sardyko, A. Ya. Smirnov, Opt. Spektrosk. 52, 713 (1982)[Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 52,424 (1982)].
  11. J. L. Boulnois, G. P. Agrawal (unpublished).
  12. J. A. White, Phys. Rev. 137A, 1651 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Yu. L. Klimontovich, P. S. Landa, E. G. Lariontsev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 52,1631 (1967)[Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 1076 (1967)].
  14. J. B. Hambenne, M. Sargent, Phys. Rev. A 13,797 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Strictly speaking, the peak gain A is itself flow dependent, as discussed by P. K. Cheo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 683 (1967). This is a minor effect for the velocity range considered here.
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Cottin, A. Van Lerberghe, J. L. Boulnois, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984), paper THL5.

1982 (1)

V. I. Sardyko, A. Ya. Smirnov, Opt. Spektrosk. 52, 713 (1982)[Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 52,424 (1982)].

1976 (1)

J. B. Hambenne, M. Sargent, Phys. Rev. A 13,797 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

F. R. Faxvog, A. D. Gara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 306 (1974)
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

L. N. Menegozzi, W. E. Lamb, Phys. Rev. A 8,2103 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

V. E. Privalov, S. A. Fridrikhov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 97, 377 (1969)[Sov. Phys. Usp. 12, 153 (1969)].

1968 (1)

H. W. Mocker, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 769 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

Strictly speaking, the peak gain A is itself flow dependent, as discussed by P. K. Cheo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 683 (1967). This is a minor effect for the velocity range considered here.
[CrossRef]

Yu. L. Klimontovich, P. S. Landa, E. G. Lariontsev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 52,1631 (1967)[Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 1076 (1967)].

1965 (3)

J. A. White, Phys. Rev. 137A, 1651 (1965).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Rigrod, T. J. Bridges, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 298 (1965).
[CrossRef]

F. Aronowitz, Phys. Rev. 139, A635 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

T. S. Moss, D. E. Killick, E. T. de la Perrelle, Infrared Phys. 4, 209 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. de Mars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 222 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

J. L. Boulnois, G. P. Agrawal (unpublished).

Aronowitz, F.

F. Aronowitz, Phys. Rev. 139, A635 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Boulnois, J. L.

J. L. Boulnois, G. P. Agrawal (unpublished).

P. Cottin, A. Van Lerberghe, J. L. Boulnois, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984), paper THL5.

Bridges, T. J.

W. W. Rigrod, T. J. Bridges, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 298 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Cheo, P. K.

Strictly speaking, the peak gain A is itself flow dependent, as discussed by P. K. Cheo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 683 (1967). This is a minor effect for the velocity range considered here.
[CrossRef]

Cottin, P.

P. Cottin, A. Van Lerberghe, J. L. Boulnois, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984), paper THL5.

de la Perrelle, E. T.

T. S. Moss, D. E. Killick, E. T. de la Perrelle, Infrared Phys. 4, 209 (1964).
[CrossRef]

de Mars, G.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. de Mars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 222 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Faxvog, F. R.

F. R. Faxvog, A. D. Gara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 306 (1974)
[CrossRef]

Fridrikhov, S. A.

V. E. Privalov, S. A. Fridrikhov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 97, 377 (1969)[Sov. Phys. Usp. 12, 153 (1969)].

Gara, A. D.

F. R. Faxvog, A. D. Gara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 306 (1974)
[CrossRef]

Hambenne, J. B.

J. B. Hambenne, M. Sargent, Phys. Rev. A 13,797 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Killick, D. E.

T. S. Moss, D. E. Killick, E. T. de la Perrelle, Infrared Phys. 4, 209 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Klimontovich, Yu. L.

Yu. L. Klimontovich, P. S. Landa, E. G. Lariontsev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 52,1631 (1967)[Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 1076 (1967)].

Lamb, W. E.

L. N. Menegozzi, W. E. Lamb, Phys. Rev. A 8,2103 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, W. E. Lamb, Laser Physics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974), Chaps. 9 and 11.

Landa, P. S.

Yu. L. Klimontovich, P. S. Landa, E. G. Lariontsev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 52,1631 (1967)[Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 1076 (1967)].

Lariontsev, E. G.

Yu. L. Klimontovich, P. S. Landa, E. G. Lariontsev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 52,1631 (1967)[Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 1076 (1967)].

Menegozzi, L. N.

L. N. Menegozzi, W. E. Lamb, Phys. Rev. A 8,2103 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Mocker, H. W.

H. W. Mocker, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 769 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Moss, T. S.

T. S. Moss, D. E. Killick, E. T. de la Perrelle, Infrared Phys. 4, 209 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Privalov, V. E.

V. E. Privalov, S. A. Fridrikhov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 97, 377 (1969)[Sov. Phys. Usp. 12, 153 (1969)].

Rigrod, W. W.

W. W. Rigrod, T. J. Bridges, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 298 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Sardyko, V. I.

V. I. Sardyko, A. Ya. Smirnov, Opt. Spektrosk. 52, 713 (1982)[Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 52,424 (1982)].

Sargent, M.

J. B. Hambenne, M. Sargent, Phys. Rev. A 13,797 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, W. E. Lamb, Laser Physics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974), Chaps. 9 and 11.

Scully, M. O.

M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, W. E. Lamb, Laser Physics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974), Chaps. 9 and 11.

Statz, H.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. de Mars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 222 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. de Mars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 222 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Van Lerberghe, A.

P. Cottin, A. Van Lerberghe, J. L. Boulnois, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984), paper THL5.

White, J. A.

J. A. White, Phys. Rev. 137A, 1651 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ya. Smirnov, A.

V. I. Sardyko, A. Ya. Smirnov, Opt. Spektrosk. 52, 713 (1982)[Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 52,424 (1982)].

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. de Mars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 222 (1963).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Faxvog, A. D. Gara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 306 (1974)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

Strictly speaking, the peak gain A is itself flow dependent, as discussed by P. K. Cheo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 683 (1967). This is a minor effect for the velocity range considered here.
[CrossRef]

W. W. Rigrod, T. J. Bridges, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 298 (1965).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Mocker, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 769 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (1)

T. S. Moss, D. E. Killick, E. T. de la Perrelle, Infrared Phys. 4, 209 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spektrosk. (1)

V. I. Sardyko, A. Ya. Smirnov, Opt. Spektrosk. 52, 713 (1982)[Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 52,424 (1982)].

Phys. Rev. (2)

J. A. White, Phys. Rev. 137A, 1651 (1965).
[CrossRef]

F. Aronowitz, Phys. Rev. 139, A635 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

L. N. Menegozzi, W. E. Lamb, Phys. Rev. A 8,2103 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Hambenne, M. Sargent, Phys. Rev. A 13,797 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Usp. Fiz. Nauk (1)

V. E. Privalov, S. A. Fridrikhov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 97, 377 (1969)[Sov. Phys. Usp. 12, 153 (1969)].

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

Yu. L. Klimontovich, P. S. Landa, E. G. Lariontsev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 52,1631 (1967)[Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 1076 (1967)].

Other (3)

J. L. Boulnois, G. P. Agrawal (unpublished).

P. Cottin, A. Van Lerberghe, J. L. Boulnois, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984), paper THL5.

M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, W. E. Lamb, Laser Physics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974), Chaps. 9 and 11.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic experimental setup for the CO2 ring laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cavity-tuning curves for the cw and ccw waves: (a) cw flow, (b) ccw flow. The laser is operating on the P(20) line for both cw and ccw waves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated cw-mode intensity I1 for several flow velocities as a function of detuning from the line center. The ccw-mode intensity I2 is obtained by reflecting each curve about the line center.

Equations (8)

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I ˙ 1 = I 1 ( α 1 β 1 I 1 θ 12 I 2 ) ,
I ˙ 2 = I 2 ( α 2 β 2 I 2 θ 21 I 1 ) ,
I i = α i / [ β i ( 1 C ) ] ,
C = θ 12 θ 21 / β 1 β 2
α i = α i θ i j α j / β j ( i j = 1 , 2 ) .
θ i j β j = 1 2 [ 1 + exp ( ± 4 υ δ k u 0 2 ) ] γ H 2 γ H 2 + δ 2
α i = A exp [ ( δ ± k υ ) 2 / ( k u 0 ) 2 ] ω / Q ,
C = C 0 cosh 2 ( 2 υ δ / k u 0 2 ) ,

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