Abstract

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) from an individual liquid droplet (∼30-μm radius) has been observed for H2O, D2O, and ethanol. The occurrence of a series of spectrally narrow peaks that are regularly spaced in wavelength is consistent with morphology-dependent resonances of the droplet, which acts as an optical resonator. The input intensity required to achieve the SRS threshold for the droplet is considerably less than that for the liquid in an optical cell.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1965), p. 102.
  2. G. E. Walrafen, in Water, A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 1, F. Franks, ed. (Plenum, New York1972);G. Walrafen, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 2700 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett 16, 303 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969);C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983
  5. J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Opt. Lett. 6, 540 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Cooney, A. Gross, Opt. Lett. 7, 218 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Chew, D.-S. Wang, M. Kerker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 56 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. K. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 9, 220 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. S. Bennett, G. J. Rosasco, Appl Opt. 17, 491 (1978);G. J. Rosasco, H. S. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1242 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982);J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, Microbeam Analysis, K. F. J. Heinrich, ed. (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, Calif., 1982), p. 255.
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Thurn, W. Kiefer, Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 781984.
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. R. Conwell, P. W. Barber, C. K. Rushforth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 62 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 499 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 273 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (6)

1982 (2)

J. Cooney, A. Gross, Opt. Lett. 7, 218 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982);J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, Microbeam Analysis, K. F. J. Heinrich, ed. (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, Calif., 1982), p. 255.
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1978 (1)

H. S. Bennett, G. J. Rosasco, Appl Opt. 17, 491 (1978);G. J. Rosasco, H. S. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1242 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett 16, 303 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. W.

P. R. Conwell, P. W. Barber, C. K. Rushforth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 62 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982);J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, Microbeam Analysis, K. F. J. Heinrich, ed. (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, Calif., 1982), p. 255.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Opt. Lett. 6, 540 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, H. S.

H. S. Bennett, G. J. Rosasco, Appl Opt. 17, 491 (1978);G. J. Rosasco, H. S. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1242 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1965), p. 102.

Byer, R. L.

Chang, R. K.

H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 273 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 499 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982);J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, Microbeam Analysis, K. F. J. Heinrich, ed. (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, Calif., 1982), p. 255.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Opt. Lett. 6, 540 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chew, H.

Conwell, P. R.

Cooney, J.

Gross, A.

Gustafson, E. K.

Ippen, E. P.

E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett 16, 303 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kerker, M.

H. Chew, D.-S. Wang, M. Kerker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 56 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969);C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983

Kiefer, W.

Long, M. B.

Owen, J. F.

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982);J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, Microbeam Analysis, K. F. J. Heinrich, ed. (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, Calif., 1982), p. 255.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Opt. Lett. 6, 540 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosasco, G. J.

H. S. Bennett, G. J. Rosasco, Appl Opt. 17, 491 (1978);G. J. Rosasco, H. S. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1242 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rushforth, C. K.

Thurn, R.

Tzeng, H.-M.

Wall, K. F.

Walrafen, G. E.

G. E. Walrafen, in Water, A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 1, F. Franks, ed. (Plenum, New York1972);G. Walrafen, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 2700 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.-S.

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982);J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, Microbeam Analysis, K. F. J. Heinrich, ed. (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, Calif., 1982), p. 255.
[CrossRef]

Appl Opt. (1)

H. S. Bennett, G. J. Rosasco, Appl Opt. 17, 491 (1978);G. J. Rosasco, H. S. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1242 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett 16, 303 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (3)

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969);C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983

N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1965), p. 102.

G. E. Walrafen, in Water, A Comprehensive Treatise, vol. 1, F. Franks, ed. (Plenum, New York1972);G. Walrafen, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 2700 (1976).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The cw spontaneous Raman scattering from bulk H2O and D2O in a cuvette is shown in the upper spectra of (a) and (b), respectively. The discrete peaks in the lower spectra of (a) and (b) are from a single droplet obtained by using a single 10-nsec laser pulse. These regularly spaced SRS peaks correspond to morphology-dependent resonances.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SRS from single H2O, droplets resulting from a single 10-nsec laser pulse. Spacing of the SRS peaks is inversely proportional to the droplet radius, which, in turn, is proportional to (fosc)−1/3. Droplet radii increase from (a) ∼25 to (d) ∼35 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spontaneous Raman scattering and (b) SRS from bulk ethanol in a cuvette. The SRS spectrum (c) from an ethanol droplet in which the most intense peak is shifted from the maximum Raman cross section. (d) Another typical SRS spectrum from an ethanol droplet in which the most intense peak is not shifted from the maximum Raman cross section.

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