Abstract

Thermotransmission measurements have been carried out on thin, self-supported, semitransparent gold films in the 1.8–3.5-eV energy region. The results compare very favorably with the spectra of Rosei et al., taken on quartz-backed samples, showing the feasibility of extending the techniques of modulation spectroscopy into the soft x-ray region. Moreover, it is shown that the widths of the spectral features are a factor of two smaller than those obtained on films evaporated on a quartz substrate. The thermal time constant is in the range of a few milliseconds, so that a very high modulation efficiency can be obtained, even when operating at several hundred hertz.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Cardona, in Solid State Physics, F. Seitz, D. Turnbull, H. Ehrenreich, eds. (Academic, New York, 1969), Suppl. 11.
  2. H. Batz, in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1972), p. 315.
  3. Proceedings of the 1st Intern. Conf. on Modulation Spectroscopy, Surface Sci. 37 (1973).
  4. Proceedings of the Intern. Conf. of Taormina on the Structure of Matter, Nuovo Cimento, in press.
  5. W. J. Scouler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 455 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Hanus, J. Feinleib, W. J. Scouler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 16 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Piacentini, C. G. Olson, D. W. Lynch, in Proceedings of IV International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, E. E. Koch, R. Haensel, C. Kunz, eds. (Pergamon-Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1974), p. 453;C. G. Olson, M. Piacentini, D. W. Lynch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 644 (1974).
  8. D. E. Aspnes, C. G. Olson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1605 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. M. Rowe, F. E. Mills, Part. Accel. 4, 211 (1973);E. M. Rowe, Phys. Today 27, 30 (July1974).
  10. Before this experiment was performed, it was widely believed that the intrinsic lifetime broadening of the core levels or of high-lying energy levels would completely smear out any structure in modulated spectra in this energy region.
  11. D. E. Aspnes, C. G. Olson, D. W. Lynch, Phys. Rev. B 14, 4450 (1976) and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  12. Preliminary data of thermomodulation of the L3,2 edge of silicon at 100 eV have been presented by D. E. Aspnes at the Taormina Conference on the Structure of Matter, Taormina (1976).
  13. J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1976).
  14. D. W. Lynch, in Proceedings of the 1976 Alghero Summer School on Synchrotron radiation research, A. N. Mancini, I. F. Quercia, eds. (1976), Vol. 1 (available from I. F. Quercia, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Italia).
  15. R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, U. M. Grassano, Surf. Sci. 37, 689 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  16. See, for instance, M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, P. Winsemius, Phys. Rev. B 12, 557 (1975) and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. S. Szczepanek, R. Glosser, U. Maryland, Tech. Rep., 1973 (unpublished);Solid State Commun. 15, 1425 (1974).
  18. R. Rosei, C. H. Culp, J. H. Weaver, Phys. Rev. B 10, 484 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, P. Winsemius, Phys. Rev. B 12, 557 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Guerrisi, Thesis (U. Rome, 1974) (unpublished).
  21. O. Hunderi and P. O. Nilsson, in Ref. 4.

1976 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, C. G. Olson, D. W. Lynch, Phys. Rev. B 14, 4450 (1976) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

See, for instance, M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, P. Winsemius, Phys. Rev. B 12, 557 (1975) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, P. Winsemius, Phys. Rev. B 12, 557 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

R. Rosei, C. H. Culp, J. H. Weaver, Phys. Rev. B 10, 484 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, C. G. Olson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1605 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (3)

E. M. Rowe, F. E. Mills, Part. Accel. 4, 211 (1973);E. M. Rowe, Phys. Today 27, 30 (July1974).

Proceedings of the 1st Intern. Conf. on Modulation Spectroscopy, Surface Sci. 37 (1973).

R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, U. M. Grassano, Surf. Sci. 37, 689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

W. J. Scouler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 455 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanus, J. Feinleib, W. J. Scouler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 16 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Antonangeli, F.

R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, U. M. Grassano, Surf. Sci. 37, 689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, C. G. Olson, D. W. Lynch, Phys. Rev. B 14, 4450 (1976) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, C. G. Olson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1605 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Preliminary data of thermomodulation of the L3,2 edge of silicon at 100 eV have been presented by D. E. Aspnes at the Taormina Conference on the Structure of Matter, Taormina (1976).

Batz, H.

H. Batz, in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1972), p. 315.

Cardona, M.

M. Cardona, in Solid State Physics, F. Seitz, D. Turnbull, H. Ehrenreich, eds. (Academic, New York, 1969), Suppl. 11.

Culp, C. H.

R. Rosei, C. H. Culp, J. H. Weaver, Phys. Rev. B 10, 484 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Feinleib, J.

J. Hanus, J. Feinleib, W. J. Scouler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 16 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Glosser, R.

P. S. Szczepanek, R. Glosser, U. Maryland, Tech. Rep., 1973 (unpublished);Solid State Commun. 15, 1425 (1974).

Grassano, U. M.

R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, U. M. Grassano, Surf. Sci. 37, 689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Guerrisi, M.

See, for instance, M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, P. Winsemius, Phys. Rev. B 12, 557 (1975) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, P. Winsemius, Phys. Rev. B 12, 557 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Guerrisi, Thesis (U. Rome, 1974) (unpublished).

Hanus, J.

J. Hanus, J. Feinleib, W. J. Scouler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 16 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, D. W.

D. E. Aspnes, C. G. Olson, D. W. Lynch, Phys. Rev. B 14, 4450 (1976) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

D. W. Lynch, in Proceedings of the 1976 Alghero Summer School on Synchrotron radiation research, A. N. Mancini, I. F. Quercia, eds. (1976), Vol. 1 (available from I. F. Quercia, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Italia).

M. Piacentini, C. G. Olson, D. W. Lynch, in Proceedings of IV International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, E. E. Koch, R. Haensel, C. Kunz, eds. (Pergamon-Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1974), p. 453;C. G. Olson, M. Piacentini, D. W. Lynch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 644 (1974).

Maryland, U.

P. S. Szczepanek, R. Glosser, U. Maryland, Tech. Rep., 1973 (unpublished);Solid State Commun. 15, 1425 (1974).

Mills, F. E.

E. M. Rowe, F. E. Mills, Part. Accel. 4, 211 (1973);E. M. Rowe, Phys. Today 27, 30 (July1974).

Olson, C. G.

D. E. Aspnes, C. G. Olson, D. W. Lynch, Phys. Rev. B 14, 4450 (1976) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, C. G. Olson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1605 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. Piacentini, C. G. Olson, D. W. Lynch, in Proceedings of IV International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, E. E. Koch, R. Haensel, C. Kunz, eds. (Pergamon-Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1974), p. 453;C. G. Olson, M. Piacentini, D. W. Lynch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 644 (1974).

Piacentini, M.

M. Piacentini, C. G. Olson, D. W. Lynch, in Proceedings of IV International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, E. E. Koch, R. Haensel, C. Kunz, eds. (Pergamon-Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1974), p. 453;C. G. Olson, M. Piacentini, D. W. Lynch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 644 (1974).

Rosei, R.

M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, P. Winsemius, Phys. Rev. B 12, 557 (1975).
[CrossRef]

See, for instance, M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, P. Winsemius, Phys. Rev. B 12, 557 (1975) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

R. Rosei, C. H. Culp, J. H. Weaver, Phys. Rev. B 10, 484 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, U. M. Grassano, Surf. Sci. 37, 689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, E. M.

E. M. Rowe, F. E. Mills, Part. Accel. 4, 211 (1973);E. M. Rowe, Phys. Today 27, 30 (July1974).

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1976).

Scouler, W. J.

J. Hanus, J. Feinleib, W. J. Scouler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 16 (1967).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Scouler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 455 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Szczepanek, P. S.

P. S. Szczepanek, R. Glosser, U. Maryland, Tech. Rep., 1973 (unpublished);Solid State Commun. 15, 1425 (1974).

Weaver, J. H.

R. Rosei, C. H. Culp, J. H. Weaver, Phys. Rev. B 10, 484 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Winsemius, P.

M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, P. Winsemius, Phys. Rev. B 12, 557 (1975).
[CrossRef]

See, for instance, M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, P. Winsemius, Phys. Rev. B 12, 557 (1975) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Part. Accel. (1)

E. M. Rowe, F. E. Mills, Part. Accel. 4, 211 (1973);E. M. Rowe, Phys. Today 27, 30 (July1974).

Phys. Rev. B (4)

D. E. Aspnes, C. G. Olson, D. W. Lynch, Phys. Rev. B 14, 4450 (1976) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

See, for instance, M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, P. Winsemius, Phys. Rev. B 12, 557 (1975) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

R. Rosei, C. H. Culp, J. H. Weaver, Phys. Rev. B 10, 484 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, P. Winsemius, Phys. Rev. B 12, 557 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

D. E. Aspnes, C. G. Olson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1605 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Scouler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 455 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanus, J. Feinleib, W. J. Scouler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 16 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, U. M. Grassano, Surf. Sci. 37, 689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Surface Sci. (1)

Proceedings of the 1st Intern. Conf. on Modulation Spectroscopy, Surface Sci. 37 (1973).

Other (11)

Proceedings of the Intern. Conf. of Taormina on the Structure of Matter, Nuovo Cimento, in press.

M. Cardona, in Solid State Physics, F. Seitz, D. Turnbull, H. Ehrenreich, eds. (Academic, New York, 1969), Suppl. 11.

H. Batz, in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1972), p. 315.

M. Piacentini, C. G. Olson, D. W. Lynch, in Proceedings of IV International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, E. E. Koch, R. Haensel, C. Kunz, eds. (Pergamon-Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1974), p. 453;C. G. Olson, M. Piacentini, D. W. Lynch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 644 (1974).

Before this experiment was performed, it was widely believed that the intrinsic lifetime broadening of the core levels or of high-lying energy levels would completely smear out any structure in modulated spectra in this energy region.

P. S. Szczepanek, R. Glosser, U. Maryland, Tech. Rep., 1973 (unpublished);Solid State Commun. 15, 1425 (1974).

Preliminary data of thermomodulation of the L3,2 edge of silicon at 100 eV have been presented by D. E. Aspnes at the Taormina Conference on the Structure of Matter, Taormina (1976).

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1976).

D. W. Lynch, in Proceedings of the 1976 Alghero Summer School on Synchrotron radiation research, A. N. Mancini, I. F. Quercia, eds. (1976), Vol. 1 (available from I. F. Quercia, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Italia).

M. Guerrisi, Thesis (U. Rome, 1974) (unpublished).

O. Hunderi and P. O. Nilsson, in Ref. 4.

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