Abstract

By using scanning near-field optical microscopy, we directly map the subwavelength confinement of light around a point defect in a two-dimensional photonic crystal microresonator. Comparison of our results with the outcome of three-dimensional finite-difference time domain calculations allows us to identify small imperfections in the structure that result in the spatial modification of the intensity distribution.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. B. McDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, L. S. Goldner, R. J. Tonucci, E. L. Shirley, and G. W. Bryant, Phys. Rev. B 55, 10878 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Fan, I. Applebaum, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Gérard, L. Berguiga, F. de Fornel, L. Salomon, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, Opt. Lett. 27, 173 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, J. Arentoft, A. Boltasseva, T. Sondergaard, and M. Kristensen, Opt. Commun. 212, 51 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. Knight, N. Dubreuil, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Lett. 20, 1515 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersale, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Götzinger, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, Appl. Phys. B 73, 825 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Sandoghdar, B. Buchler, P. Kramper, S. Götzinger, O. Benson, and M. Kafesaki, in Photonic Crystals—Advances in Design, Fabrication, and Characterization, K. Busch, S. Lölkes, R. Wehrspohn, and H. Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, to be published).
  12. K. Schneider, P. Kramper, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Lett. 22, 1293 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Kramper, A. Birner, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, F. Müller, U. Gösele, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. B 64, 233102-1 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Birner, “Optische Wellenleiter und Mikroresonatoren in Zweidimensionalen Photonischen Kristallen aus Makroporösem Silizium,” Ph.D. dissertation (Martin-Luther University at Halle-Wittenberg, Germany, 2000), available at http://sundoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/diss-online/00/00H127/index.htm .
  15. A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Ottow, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Föll, and U. Gösele, Phys. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. The quantitative details of the near-field interaction between a tip and a sample depend strongly on the geometry of the tip, polarization of light, etc. and cannot be modeled in an accurate manner. Therefore we simply assume a generic Gaussian profile.

2003 (1)

K. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, J. Arentoft, A. Boltasseva, T. Sondergaard, and M. Kristensen, Opt. Commun. 212, 51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Gérard, L. Berguiga, F. de Fornel, L. Salomon, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, Opt. Lett. 27, 173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

P. Kramper, A. Birner, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, F. Müller, U. Gösele, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. B 64, 233102-1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Götzinger, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, Appl. Phys. B 73, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, I. Applebaum, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersale, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Ottow, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Föll, and U. Gösele, Phys. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

K. Schneider, P. Kramper, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Lett. 22, 1293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. B. McDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, L. S. Goldner, R. J. Tonucci, E. L. Shirley, and G. W. Bryant, Phys. Rev. B 55, 10878 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Agio, M.

P. Kramper, A. Birner, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, F. Müller, U. Gösele, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. B 64, 233102-1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Allovon, M.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersale, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Applebaum, I.

S. Fan, I. Applebaum, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arentoft, J.

S. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, J. Arentoft, A. Boltasseva, T. Sondergaard, and M. Kristensen, Opt. Commun. 212, 51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Balistreri, M. L. M.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barthe, F.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersale, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benson, O.

S. Götzinger, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, Appl. Phys. B 73, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, B. Buchler, P. Kramper, S. Götzinger, O. Benson, and M. Kafesaki, in Photonic Crystals—Advances in Design, Fabrication, and Characterization, K. Busch, S. Lölkes, R. Wehrspohn, and H. Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, to be published).

Berguiga, L.

Birner, A.

P. Kramper, A. Birner, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, F. Müller, U. Gösele, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. B 64, 233102-1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Ottow, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Föll, and U. Gösele, Phys. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Birner, “Optische Wellenleiter und Mikroresonatoren in Zweidimensionalen Photonischen Kristallen aus Makroporösem Silizium,” Ph.D. dissertation (Martin-Luther University at Halle-Wittenberg, Germany, 2000), available at http://sundoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/diss-online/00/00H127/index.htm .

Boccara, A. C.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersale, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

S. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, J. Arentoft, A. Boltasseva, T. Sondergaard, and M. Kristensen, Opt. Commun. 212, 51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bourzeix, S.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersale, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S.

S. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, J. Arentoft, A. Boltasseva, T. Sondergaard, and M. Kristensen, Opt. Commun. 212, 51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, A.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersale, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, G. W.

E. B. McDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, L. S. Goldner, R. J. Tonucci, E. L. Shirley, and G. W. Bryant, Phys. Rev. B 55, 10878 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Buchler, B.

V. Sandoghdar, B. Buchler, P. Kramper, S. Götzinger, O. Benson, and M. Kafesaki, in Photonic Crystals—Advances in Design, Fabrication, and Characterization, K. Busch, S. Lölkes, R. Wehrspohn, and H. Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, to be published).

Charlton, M. D. B.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Fornel, F.

Dubreuil, N.

Fan, S.

S. Fan, I. Applebaum, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Föll, H.

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Ottow, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Föll, and U. Gösele, Phys. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gérard, D.

Gersen, H.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldner, L. S.

E. B. McDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, L. S. Goldner, R. J. Tonucci, E. L. Shirley, and G. W. Bryant, Phys. Rev. B 55, 10878 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gösele, U.

P. Kramper, A. Birner, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, F. Müller, U. Gösele, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. B 64, 233102-1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Ottow, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Föll, and U. Gösele, Phys. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, S.

S. Götzinger, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, Appl. Phys. B 73, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, B. Buchler, P. Kramper, S. Götzinger, O. Benson, and M. Kafesaki, in Photonic Crystals—Advances in Design, Fabrication, and Characterization, K. Busch, S. Lölkes, R. Wehrspohn, and H. Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, to be published).

Grüning, U.

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Ottow, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Föll, and U. Gösele, Phys. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

Haroche, S.

Hsu, J. W. P.

E. B. McDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, L. S. Goldner, R. J. Tonucci, E. L. Shirley, and G. W. Bryant, Phys. Rev. B 55, 10878 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Fan, I. Applebaum, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

V. Sandoghdar, B. Buchler, P. Kramper, S. Götzinger, O. Benson, and M. Kafesaki, in Photonic Crystals—Advances in Design, Fabrication, and Characterization, K. Busch, S. Lölkes, R. Wehrspohn, and H. Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, to be published).

Knight, J. C.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, N. Dubreuil, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Lett. 20, 1515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korterik, J. P.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kramper, P.

P. Kramper, A. Birner, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, F. Müller, U. Gösele, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. B 64, 233102-1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Schneider, P. Kramper, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Lett. 22, 1293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, B. Buchler, P. Kramper, S. Götzinger, O. Benson, and M. Kafesaki, in Photonic Crystals—Advances in Design, Fabrication, and Characterization, K. Busch, S. Lölkes, R. Wehrspohn, and H. Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, to be published).

Kristensen, M.

S. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, J. Arentoft, A. Boltasseva, T. Sondergaard, and M. Kristensen, Opt. Commun. 212, 51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

Lehmann, V.

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Ottow, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Föll, and U. Gösele, Phys. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Letartre, X.

Licoppe, C.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersale, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

K. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McDaniel, E. B.

E. B. McDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, L. S. Goldner, R. J. Tonucci, E. L. Shirley, and G. W. Bryant, Phys. Rev. B 55, 10878 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mersale, B.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersale, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mignard, F.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersale, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

P. Kramper, A. Birner, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, F. Müller, U. Gösele, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. B 64, 233102-1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Schneider, P. Kramper, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Lett. 22, 1293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moison, J. M.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersale, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Müller, F.

P. Kramper, A. Birner, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, F. Müller, U. Gösele, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. B 64, 233102-1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Ottow, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Föll, and U. Gösele, Phys. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ottow, S.

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Ottow, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Föll, and U. Gösele, Phys. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parker, G. J.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, P. L.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J. M.

Rojo-Romeo, P.

Russell, P. St. J.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, L.

Sandoghdar, V.

P. Kramper, A. Birner, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, F. Müller, U. Gösele, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. B 64, 233102-1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Götzinger, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, Appl. Phys. B 73, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, N. Dubreuil, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Lett. 20, 1515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sandoghdar, B. Buchler, P. Kramper, S. Götzinger, O. Benson, and M. Kafesaki, in Photonic Crystals—Advances in Design, Fabrication, and Characterization, K. Busch, S. Lölkes, R. Wehrspohn, and H. Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, to be published).

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

Schneider, A.

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Ottow, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Föll, and U. Gösele, Phys. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, K.

Seassal, C.

Shirley, E. L.

E. B. McDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, L. S. Goldner, R. J. Tonucci, E. L. Shirley, and G. W. Bryant, Phys. Rev. B 55, 10878 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sondergaard, T.

S. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, J. Arentoft, A. Boltasseva, T. Sondergaard, and M. Kristensen, Opt. Commun. 212, 51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

P. Kramper, A. Birner, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, F. Müller, U. Gösele, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. B 64, 233102-1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tonucci, R. J.

E. B. McDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, L. S. Goldner, R. J. Tonucci, E. L. Shirley, and G. W. Bryant, Phys. Rev. B 55, 10878 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viktorovitch, P.

Volkov, V. S.

S. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, J. Arentoft, A. Boltasseva, T. Sondergaard, and M. Kristensen, Opt. Commun. 212, 51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshie, T.

K. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Götzinger, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, Appl. Phys. B 73, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Fan, I. Applebaum, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersale, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, J. Arentoft, A. Boltasseva, T. Sondergaard, and M. Kristensen, Opt. Commun. 212, 51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

E. B. McDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, L. S. Goldner, R. J. Tonucci, E. L. Shirley, and G. W. Bryant, Phys. Rev. B 55, 10878 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Kramper, A. Birner, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, F. Müller, U. Gösele, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. B 64, 233102-1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

A. Birner, U. Grüning, S. Ottow, A. Schneider, F. Müller, V. Lehmann, H. Föll, and U. Gösele, Phys. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

A. Birner, “Optische Wellenleiter und Mikroresonatoren in Zweidimensionalen Photonischen Kristallen aus Makroporösem Silizium,” Ph.D. dissertation (Martin-Luther University at Halle-Wittenberg, Germany, 2000), available at http://sundoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/diss-online/00/00H127/index.htm .

V. Sandoghdar, B. Buchler, P. Kramper, S. Götzinger, O. Benson, and M. Kafesaki, in Photonic Crystals—Advances in Design, Fabrication, and Characterization, K. Busch, S. Lölkes, R. Wehrspohn, and H. Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, to be published).

The quantitative details of the near-field interaction between a tip and a sample depend strongly on the geometry of the tip, polarization of light, etc. and cannot be modeled in an accurate manner. Therefore we simply assume a generic Gaussian profile.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a, Electron microscope image of the PC structure studied. The white square marks the area imaged by SNOM. The four arrows indicate the pores responsible for the effects discussed in Figs. 3a and 3b. b, Schematics of our setup. Two SNOM tips are used to image the light exiting the PC and the evanescent light traveling at the PC–air interface. Inset, optical micrograph of the tip. OPO, optical parametric oscillator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a, Topography signal recorded by probe 2. b, Optical signal recorded simultaneous to the image in a. Inset, linear color code. In both a and b an array of pores is superposed to guide the eye. We note that, even though a and b were recorded simultaneously, there exists a slight lateral offset between them. This is often the case in SNOM because the sections of the tip that provide the topographic and optical signals are different. The cross sections in b are shown in Figs. 3c and 3d.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a, Simulated lateral intensity distribution on the top surface if the four pores marked in Fig. 1a were to be 5% smaller than the bulk pore diameter. b, Image in a after convolution with a Gaussian filter function of FWHM=1.4 µm. c, Black and red curves show the cross sections along the waveguides through Figs. 2b and 3b, respectively. d, Corresponding diagonal cross sections through Figs. 2b and 3b. e, Cross section of the intensity distribution along the yz plane. A Gaussian beam is coupled in close to the top of the PC structure from the left-hand side.

Metrics