Abstract

A concept for a low-loss all-reflective cavity coupler is experimentally demonstrated at a wavelength of 1064 nm. A 1450-nm period dielectric reflection grating with a diffraction efficiency of 0.58% in the -1st order is used in the 2nd-order Littrow configuration as a coupler to form a cavity with a finesse of 400. The application of such reflective low-loss cavity couplers in future generations of gravitational-wave detectors and implementation issues are discussed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 517, 154 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. The TAMA Collaboration, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3950 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. The VIRGO Collaboration, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, 709 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. W. P. Drever, in Proceedings of the Seventh Marcel Grossman Meeting on General Relativity, M. Keiser and R. T. Jantzen, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).
  6. K.-X. Sun and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 23, 567 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Clausnitzer, J. Limpert, K. Zöllner, H. Zellmer, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, M. Jupé, and D. Ristau, Appl. Opt. 42, 6934 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. A. Britten, S. J. Bryan, L. J. Summers, H. T. Nguyen, B. W. Shore, and O. Lyngnes, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. CPDB7-1–4.
  9. B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Feit, H. T. Nguyen, R. Chow, G. E. Loomis, and L. Li, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1124 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

2004

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 517, 154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

The VIRGO Collaboration, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, 709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

The TAMA Collaboration, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3950 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

1992

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramovici, A.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Althouse, W. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. D.

Britten, J. A.

B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Feit, H. T. Nguyen, R. Chow, G. E. Loomis, and L. Li, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Britten, S. J. Bryan, L. J. Summers, H. T. Nguyen, B. W. Shore, and O. Lyngnes, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. CPDB7-1–4.

Bryan, S. J.

J. A. Britten, S. J. Bryan, L. J. Summers, H. T. Nguyen, B. W. Shore, and O. Lyngnes, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. CPDB7-1–4.

Byer, R. L.

Chow, R.

Clausnitzer, T.

Drever, R. W. P.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. P. Drever, in Proceedings of the Seventh Marcel Grossman Meeting on General Relativity, M. Keiser and R. T. Jantzen, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).

Feit, M. D.

Fuchs, H.-J.

Gürsel, Y.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jupé, M.

Kawamura, S.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kley, E.-B.

Li, L.

Limpert, J.

Loomis, G. E.

Lyngnes, O.

J. A. Britten, S. J. Bryan, L. J. Summers, H. T. Nguyen, B. W. Shore, and O. Lyngnes, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. CPDB7-1–4.

Nguyen, H. T.

B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Feit, H. T. Nguyen, R. Chow, G. E. Loomis, and L. Li, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Britten, S. J. Bryan, L. J. Summers, H. T. Nguyen, B. W. Shore, and O. Lyngnes, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. CPDB7-1–4.

Perry, M. D.

Raab, F. J.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ristau, D.

Shoemaker, D.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shore, B. W.

B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Feit, H. T. Nguyen, R. Chow, G. E. Loomis, and L. Li, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Britten, S. J. Bryan, L. J. Summers, H. T. Nguyen, B. W. Shore, and O. Lyngnes, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. CPDB7-1–4.

Siegman, A.

A. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Sievers, L.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spero, R. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Summers, L. J.

J. A. Britten, S. J. Bryan, L. J. Summers, H. T. Nguyen, B. W. Shore, and O. Lyngnes, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. CPDB7-1–4.

Sun, K.-X.

Thorne, K. S.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

Vogt, R. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, R.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitcomb, S. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zellmer, H.

Zöllner, K.

Zucker, M. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Class. Quantum Grav.

The VIRGO Collaboration, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, 709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 517, 154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

The TAMA Collaboration, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3950 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. A. Britten, S. J. Bryan, L. J. Summers, H. T. Nguyen, B. W. Shore, and O. Lyngnes, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. CPDB7-1–4.

R. W. P. Drever, in Proceedings of the Seventh Marcel Grossman Meeting on General Relativity, M. Keiser and R. T. Jantzen, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).

A. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Interferometer setup proposed by Drever.5

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflected and transmitted orders from a reflection grating in the 2nd-order Littrow configuration: (a) incident beam at the Littrow angle, (b) normal incidence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross section of an overcoated binary grating (scanning electron microscope image).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup of the demonstrated grating Fabry–Perot cavity: HR, high reflector; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; PD1, PD2, photodiodes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured signals of the two photodiodes according to Fig. 4 versus the piezoelectric transducer ramp voltage over one free spectral range. PD1, reflected power normalized to the power of the incident beam; PD2, circulating power in the cavity.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dsin Θm-sin Θin=mλ,
λ<d<2λ.
win,h/wm,h=cos Θin/cos Θm,

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