Abstract

Highly efficient transmission of 1.5µm light in a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal slab waveguide is experimentally demonstrated. Light waves are shown to be guided along a triple-line defect formed within a 2D crystal and vertically by a strong index-guiding mechanism. At certain wavelength ranges, complete transmission is observed, suggesting lossless guiding along this photonic one-dimensional conduction channel.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For a general reference, see J. D. Joannoupoulos, R. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).
  2. A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2042 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Turner, B. Vasiliu, S. C. Kothari, and S. Y. Lin, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 23, 56 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Chutinan and S. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3739 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Zijlstra, E. Drift, M. J. A. de Dood, E. Snoeks, and A. Polman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2734 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. R. Villeneuve, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 384 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, P. L. Gourley, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2637 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zurbryski, H. Hou, and A. Allerman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” submitted to Nature.
  12. S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. The laser has a typical wavelength tuning range of Δλ=50–80 nm, which is not sufficient to cover the entire bandgap spectral range of ∼400 nm. Owing to this experimental limitation, multiple lasers and samples with different a0 were used to map the dispersion spectrum.

1999

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2042 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Turner, B. Vasiliu, S. C. Kothari, and S. Y. Lin, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 23, 56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zijlstra, E. Drift, M. J. A. de Dood, E. Snoeks, and A. Polman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. R. Villeneuve, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, P. L. Gourley, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2637 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allerman, A.

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zurbryski, H. Hou, and A. Allerman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” submitted to Nature.

Birks, T. A.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biswas, R.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2042 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Turner, B. Vasiliu, S. C. Kothari, and S. Y. Lin, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 23, 56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, T. M.

J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, P. L. Gourley, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2637 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. C.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, E.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zurbryski, H. Hou, and A. Allerman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” submitted to Nature.

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Dood, M. J. A.

T. Zijlstra, E. Drift, M. J. A. de Dood, E. Snoeks, and A. Polman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Drift, E.

T. Zijlstra, E. Drift, M. J. A. de Dood, E. Snoeks, and A. Polman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

El-Kady, I.

Fan, S.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gourley, P. L.

J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, P. L. Gourley, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2637 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hammons, B. E.

J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, P. L. Gourley, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2637 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hietala, V.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, K. M.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2042 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Turner, B. Vasiliu, S. C. Kothari, and S. Y. Lin, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 23, 56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hou, H.

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zurbryski, H. Hou, and A. Allerman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” submitted to Nature.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zurbryski, H. Hou, and A. Allerman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” submitted to Nature.

Joannoupoulos, J. D.

For a general reference, see J. D. Joannoupoulos, R. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

Johnson, S. G.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zurbryski, H. Hou, and A. Allerman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” submitted to Nature.

Knight, J. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kothari, S. C.

M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Turner, B. Vasiliu, S. C. Kothari, and S. Y. Lin, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 23, 56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kurland, I.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S. Y.

M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Turner, B. Vasiliu, S. C. Kothari, and S. Y. Lin, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 23, 56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zurbryski, H. Hou, and A. Allerman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” submitted to Nature.

Mangan, B. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meade, R.

For a general reference, see J. D. Joannoupoulos, R. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noda, S.

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

T. Zijlstra, E. Drift, M. J. A. de Dood, E. Snoeks, and A. Polman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigalas, M. M.

M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Turner, B. Vasiliu, S. C. Kothari, and S. Y. Lin, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 23, 56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2042 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Snoeks, E.

T. Zijlstra, E. Drift, M. J. A. de Dood, E. Snoeks, and A. Polman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Turner, B. Vasiliu, S. C. Kothari, and S. Y. Lin, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 23, 56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Turner, D.

M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Turner, B. Vasiliu, S. C. Kothari, and S. Y. Lin, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 23, 56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vasiliu, B.

M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Turner, B. Vasiliu, S. C. Kothari, and S. Y. Lin, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 23, 56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vawter, G. A.

J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, P. L. Gourley, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2637 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zurbryski, H. Hou, and A. Allerman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” submitted to Nature.

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Villeneuve, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zurbryski, H. Hou, and A. Allerman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” submitted to Nature.

Wendt, J. R.

J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, P. L. Gourley, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2637 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zurbryski, H. Hou, and A. Allerman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” submitted to Nature.

Winn, J.

For a general reference, see J. D. Joannoupoulos, R. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

Zijlstra, T.

T. Zijlstra, E. Drift, M. J. A. de Dood, E. Snoeks, and A. Polman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zurbryski, W.

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zurbryski, H. Hou, and A. Allerman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” submitted to Nature.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron.

P. R. Villeneuve, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, P. L. Gourley, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2637 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Zijlstra, E. Drift, M. J. A. de Dood, E. Snoeks, and A. Polman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett.

M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Turner, B. Vasiliu, S. C. Kothari, and S. Y. Lin, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 23, 56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zurbryski, H. Hou, and A. Allerman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” submitted to Nature.

For a general reference, see J. D. Joannoupoulos, R. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

The laser has a typical wavelength tuning range of Δλ=50–80 nm, which is not sufficient to cover the entire bandgap spectral range of ∼400 nm. Owing to this experimental limitation, multiple lasers and samples with different a0 were used to map the dispersion spectrum.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-section scanning electron microscope view of the fabricated triple-line defect embedded within a triangular array of holes. The defect holes have a larger diameter, d=0.8a0, than the regular holes, d=0.6a0. (b) Scanning electron microscope top view of the triple-line defect waveguide structure. The ridge waveguides are used to facilitate coupling of laser light into and out of the 2D slab hole array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Computed dispersion of the 2D photonic crystal slab waveguide. The three guided bands cover 36% of the bandgap. The conduction band (CB), valence band (VB), and light-cone regions are labeled.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absolute guiding efficiency η plotted as a function of λ. At λ15401565 nm, a perfect guiding efficiency is observed. Inset, infrared image of transmitted output light at λ=1.550 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absolute guiding efficiency η and transmittance T as a function of ω over the entire photonic bandgap region.

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