Abstract

We report focusing of coherent light through opaque scattering materials by control of the incident wavefront. The multiply scattered light forms a focus with a brightness that is up to a factor of 1000 higher than the brightness of the normal diffuse transmission.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P.Sebbah, ed., Waves and Imaging through Complex Media (Kluwer, 2001).
  2. R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, 1998).
  3. A. Derode, A. Tourin, J. de Rosny, M. Tanter, S. Yon, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 014301 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. H. Simon, A. L. Moustakas, M. Stoytchev, and H. Safar, Phys. Today 54(9), 38 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, Science 315, 1120 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. H. J. Kop, P. de Vries, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4369 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, Science 297, 2026 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 2000).
  9. D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, 1989).
  10. N. Garcia and A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1678 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. W. J. Beenakker, Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 731 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. B. Pendry, A. MacKinnon, and P. J. Roberts, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 437, 67 (1990).
  13. M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Express 13, 5483 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 76, 711 (2003).

2007

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, Science 315, 1120 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Express 13, 5483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 76, 711 (2003).

A. Derode, A. Tourin, J. de Rosny, M. Tanter, S. Yon, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 014301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, Science 297, 2026 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

S. H. Simon, A. L. Moustakas, M. Stoytchev, and H. Safar, Phys. Today 54(9), 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. H. J. Kop, P. de Vries, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4369 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. W. J. Beenakker, Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 731 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. B. Pendry, A. MacKinnon, and P. J. Roberts, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 437, 67 (1990).

1989

N. Garcia and A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1678 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beenakker, C. W. J.

C. W. J. Beenakker, Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 731 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, D. J.

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Buckup, T.

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 76, 711 (2003).

de Boer, J. F.

de Rosny, J.

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, Science 315, 1120 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Derode, A. Tourin, J. de Rosny, M. Tanter, S. Yon, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 014301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Vries, P.

R. H. J. Kop, P. de Vries, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4369 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Derode, A.

A. Derode, A. Tourin, J. de Rosny, M. Tanter, S. Yon, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 014301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietsche, G.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elbert, T.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faleev, S. V.

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, M.

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, Science 315, 1120 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Derode, A. Tourin, J. de Rosny, M. Tanter, S. Yon, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 014301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, N.

N. Garcia and A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1678 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gehner, A.

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 76, 711 (2003).

Genack, A. Z.

N. Garcia and A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1678 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gershenfeld, N.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, Science 297, 2026 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisler, T.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, D. E.

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, 1989).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 2000).

Hacker, M.

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 76, 711 (2003).

Iftime, D.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kop, R. H. J.

R. H. J. Kop, P. de Vries, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4369 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

R. H. J. Kop, P. de Vries, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4369 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lerosey, G.

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, Science 315, 1120 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

MacKinnon, A.

J. B. Pendry, A. MacKinnon, and P. J. Roberts, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 437, 67 (1990).

Maret, G.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Motzkus, M.

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 76, 711 (2003).

Moustakas, A. L.

S. H. Simon, A. L. Moustakas, M. Stoytchev, and H. Safar, Phys. Today 54(9), 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pappu, R.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, Science 297, 2026 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, A. MacKinnon, and P. J. Roberts, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 437, 67 (1990).

Recht, B.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, Science 297, 2026 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, P. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. MacKinnon, and P. J. Roberts, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 437, 67 (1990).

Rockstroh, B.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Safar, H.

S. H. Simon, A. L. Moustakas, M. Stoytchev, and H. Safar, Phys. Today 54(9), 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 76, 711 (2003).

Simon, S. H.

S. H. Simon, A. L. Moustakas, M. Stoytchev, and H. Safar, Phys. Today 54(9), 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Skipetrov, S. E.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sprik, R.

R. H. J. Kop, P. de Vries, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4369 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stobrawa, G.

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 76, 711 (2003).

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoytchev, M.

S. H. Simon, A. L. Moustakas, M. Stoytchev, and H. Safar, Phys. Today 54(9), 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanter, M.

A. Derode, A. Tourin, J. de Rosny, M. Tanter, S. Yon, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 014301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, J.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, Science 297, 2026 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tourin, A.

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, Science 315, 1120 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Derode, A. Tourin, J. de Rosny, M. Tanter, S. Yon, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 014301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyson, R. K.

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, 1998).

Vakoc, B. J.

Wildenhain, M.

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 76, 711 (2003).

Yon, S.

A. Derode, A. Tourin, J. de Rosny, M. Tanter, S. Yon, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 014301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.

M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, R. Sauerbrey, T. Buckup, M. Motzkus, M. Wildenhain, and A. Gehner, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 76, 711 (2003).

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Garcia and A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1678 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Derode, A. Tourin, J. de Rosny, M. Tanter, S. Yon, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 014301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. J. Kop, P. de Vries, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4369 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today

S. H. Simon, A. L. Moustakas, M. Stoytchev, and H. Safar, Phys. Today 54(9), 38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A

J. B. Pendry, A. MacKinnon, and P. J. Roberts, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 437, 67 (1990).

Rev. Mod. Phys.

C. W. J. Beenakker, Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 731 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, Science 315, 1120 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, Science 297, 2026 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 2000).

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, 1989).

P.Sebbah, ed., Waves and Imaging through Complex Media (Kluwer, 2001).

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, 1998).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Design of the experiment. (a) A plane wave is focused on a disordered medium, and a speckle pattern is transmitted. (b) The wavefront of the incident light is shaped so that scattering makes the light focus at a predefined target.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the apparatus. A 632.8 nm HeNe laser beam is expanded and reflected off a Holoeye LR-2500 liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). Polarization optics select a phase mostly modulation mode. The SLM is imaged onto the entrance pupil of the objective with a 1:3 demagnifying lens system (not shown). The objective is overfilled; we use only segments that fall inside the pupil. The shaped wavefront is focused on the strongly scattering sample (S), and a CCD camera images the transmitted intensity pattern. λ 4 , quarter-wave plate; λ 2 , half-wave plate; M, mirror; BS, 50% nonpolarizing beam splitter; P, polarizer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission through a strongly scattering sample consisting of Ti O 2 pigment. (a) Transmission micrograph with an unshaped incident beam. (b) Transmission after optimization for focusing at a single target. The scattered light is focused to a spot that is 1000 times brighter than the original speckle pattern. (c) Multibeam optimization. The disordered medium generates five sharp foci at the defined positions. (a)–(c) are presented on the same logarithmic color scale that is normalized to the average transmission before optimization. (d) Phase of the incident wavefront used to form (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured intensity enhancement as a function of the number of segments. Squares, sample in focus; triangles, sample 100 μ m behind focus; solid curve, ideal enhancement [Eq. (2)], dotted curve, corrected for residual amplitude modulation and finite persistence time of T p = 5400 s . The experimental uncertainty is of the order of the symbol size.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Intensity Enhancement for Different Materials a

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E m = n = 1 N t m n A n e i ϕ n ,
η = π 4 ( N 1 ) + 1 .

Metrics