Abstract

We describe a new technique that utilizes birefringence for phase matching of stimulated parametric emission in a single-mode optical fiber. The frequency shift between the generated frequencies and the pump frequency can be controlled over a wide range (~1000 cm−1) by the magnitude of birefringence built into the fiber.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 308 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. H. Stolen, “Phase-matched stimulated four-photon mixing in silica-fiber waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 100 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Saissy, J. Botineau, A. Azema, F. Gires, “Diffusion Raman stimulée a trois ondes dans une fiber optique,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1639 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. Lin, M. Bösch, “Frequency conversion by large-Stokes-shift stimulated four-photon mixing in optical fibers,” presented at Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston, Mass., June1980.
  5. K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, “Efficient sequence-frequency generation in a parametric fiber-optic oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 888 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Owyoung, “The origins of the nonlinear refractive indices of liquids and glasses” Ph.D thesis, Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information Rep. No. AFOSR-TR-71-3132 (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1971).
  7. R. H. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, “Linear polarization in birefringent single-mode fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, “Cw three-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5098 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Gloge, “Weakly guiding fibers,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2252 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Index data for fused SiO2 from D. E. Gray, ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), p. 6:25.
  11. R. H. Stolen, “Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. H. Stolen, “Nonlinear properties of optical fibers,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, S. E. Miller, A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 125.
  13. The parametric bandwidth is actually intensity dependent, but any advantages of this additional bandwidth are canceled by frequency broadening from self-phase modulation.
  14. V. Ramaswamy, R. H. Stolen, M. D. Divino, W. Pleibel, “Birefringence in elliptically clad borosilicate single-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 4080 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

A. Saissy, J. Botineau, A. Azema, F. Gires, “Diffusion Raman stimulée a trois ondes dans une fiber optique,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1639 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, “Efficient sequence-frequency generation in a parametric fiber-optic oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 888 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

R. H. Stolen, “Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157 (1979).
[Crossref]

V. Ramaswamy, R. H. Stolen, M. D. Divino, W. Pleibel, “Birefringence in elliptically clad borosilicate single-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 4080 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (2)

R. H. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, “Linear polarization in birefringent single-mode fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, “Cw three-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5098 (1978).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

R. H. Stolen, “Phase-matched stimulated four-photon mixing in silica-fiber waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 100 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 308 (1974).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

Ashkin, A.

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 308 (1974).
[Crossref]

Azema, A.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 308 (1974).
[Crossref]

Bösch, M.

C. Lin, M. Bösch, “Frequency conversion by large-Stokes-shift stimulated four-photon mixing in optical fibers,” presented at Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston, Mass., June1980.

Botineau, J.

Divino, M. D.

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, “Efficient sequence-frequency generation in a parametric fiber-optic oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 888 (1980).
[Crossref]

Gires, F.

Gloge, D.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, “Efficient sequence-frequency generation in a parametric fiber-optic oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 888 (1980).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, “Cw three-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5098 (1978).
[Crossref]

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, “Efficient sequence-frequency generation in a parametric fiber-optic oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 888 (1980).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, “Cw three-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5098 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, P.

R. H. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, “Linear polarization in birefringent single-mode fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, “Efficient sequence-frequency generation in a parametric fiber-optic oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 888 (1980).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, “Cw three-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5098 (1978).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

C. Lin, M. Bösch, “Frequency conversion by large-Stokes-shift stimulated four-photon mixing in optical fibers,” presented at Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston, Mass., June1980.

Owyoung, A.

A. Owyoung, “The origins of the nonlinear refractive indices of liquids and glasses” Ph.D thesis, Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information Rep. No. AFOSR-TR-71-3132 (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1971).

Pleibel, W.

V. Ramaswamy, R. H. Stolen, M. D. Divino, W. Pleibel, “Birefringence in elliptically clad borosilicate single-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 4080 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, “Linear polarization in birefringent single-mode fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[Crossref]

Ramaswamy, V.

V. Ramaswamy, R. H. Stolen, M. D. Divino, W. Pleibel, “Birefringence in elliptically clad borosilicate single-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 4080 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, “Linear polarization in birefringent single-mode fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[Crossref]

Saissy, A.

Stolen, R. H.

V. Ramaswamy, R. H. Stolen, M. D. Divino, W. Pleibel, “Birefringence in elliptically clad borosilicate single-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 4080 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Stolen, “Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157 (1979).
[Crossref]

R. H. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, “Linear polarization in birefringent single-mode fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[Crossref]

R. H. Stolen, “Phase-matched stimulated four-photon mixing in silica-fiber waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 100 (1975).
[Crossref]

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 308 (1974).
[Crossref]

R. H. Stolen, “Nonlinear properties of optical fibers,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, S. E. Miller, A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 125.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 308 (1974).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, “Efficient sequence-frequency generation in a parametric fiber-optic oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 888 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. H. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, “Linear polarization in birefringent single-mode fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. H. Stolen, “Phase-matched stimulated four-photon mixing in silica-fiber waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 100 (1975).
[Crossref]

R. H. Stolen, “Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, “Cw three-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5098 (1978).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

A. Owyoung, “The origins of the nonlinear refractive indices of liquids and glasses” Ph.D thesis, Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information Rep. No. AFOSR-TR-71-3132 (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1971).

C. Lin, M. Bösch, “Frequency conversion by large-Stokes-shift stimulated four-photon mixing in optical fibers,” presented at Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston, Mass., June1980.

R. H. Stolen, “Nonlinear properties of optical fibers,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, S. E. Miller, A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 125.

The parametric bandwidth is actually intensity dependent, but any advantages of this additional bandwidth are canceled by frequency broadening from self-phase modulation.

Index data for fused SiO2 from D. E. Gray, ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), p. 6:25.

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for the observation of birefringence-matched stimulated parametric emission. Phase matching occurs with the pump polarization along the slow axis of the birefringent fiber. Stimulated parametric emission is polarized perpendicularly to the pump, whereas the stimulated Raman output is polarized parallel to the pump.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Frequency Shift in Several Birefringent Single-Mode Fibers Measured Using a 532-nm Pump Laser and Calculated from the Fiber Birefringence δn

Equations (5)

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δk = k s + k a 2 k p = β Ω 2 , β = β M + β W ,
β M = 2 πλD ( λ )
β W = 2 πλ Δ nV d 2 ( bV ) d V 2 ,
Ω = 4 πδn βλ cm 1 .
δ Ω = π 2 β Ω L .

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