Abstract

A new type of wavelength-modulation laser spectroscopy is accomplished by utilizing an external phase modulator driven at radio frequencies large compared to the width of the spectral feature of interest. The spectral feature is probed by a single frequency-modulated (FM) sideband, and the associated absorption and dispersion are measured by monitoring the resulting radio-frequency beat signal. Experimental results are presented for the measurement of Fabry–Perot resonances, I2 vapor absorption lines, and saturation holes in Na vapor.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. L. Tang, J. M. Telle, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4503 (1974); E. I. Moses, C. L. Tang, Opt. Lett. 1, 115 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. A. Akhmanov, Y. D. Golyaev, S. V. Lantratov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 758 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurtry, E. O. Ammann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 185 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 14 (1969); D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 566 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. E. Bjorkholm, E. H. Turner, D. B. Pearson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 564 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. G. Brewer, Phys. Today 30(5), 50 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. L. Eesley, M. D. Levenson, W. M. Tolles, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 192 (1978).
  8. A. Owyoung, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 192 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Cardona, Modulation Spectroscopy, Supplement II of Solid State Physics, F. Seitz, D. Turnbull, eds. (Academic, New York, 1969).
  10. M. D. Levenson, G. L. Eesley, Appl. Phys. 19, 1 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. M. Carter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 810 (1978); G. Magerl, E. Bonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 452 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

1979

M. D. Levenson, G. L. Eesley, Appl. Phys. 19, 1 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

G. M. Carter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 810 (1978); G. Magerl, E. Bonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 452 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Akhmanov, Y. D. Golyaev, S. V. Lantratov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 758 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Eesley, M. D. Levenson, W. M. Tolles, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 192 (1978).

A. Owyoung, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 192 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

R. G. Brewer, Phys. Today 30(5), 50 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

J. E. Bjorkholm, E. H. Turner, D. B. Pearson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 564 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

C. L. Tang, J. M. Telle, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4503 (1974); E. I. Moses, C. L. Tang, Opt. Lett. 1, 115 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 14 (1969); D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1965

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurtry, E. O. Ammann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 185 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Akhmanov, S. A.

S. A. Akhmanov, Y. D. Golyaev, S. V. Lantratov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 758 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ammann, E. O.

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurtry, E. O. Ammann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 185 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, E. H. Turner, D. B. Pearson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 564 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, R. G.

R. G. Brewer, Phys. Today 30(5), 50 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

M. Cardona, Modulation Spectroscopy, Supplement II of Solid State Physics, F. Seitz, D. Turnbull, eds. (Academic, New York, 1969).

Carter, G. M.

G. M. Carter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 810 (1978); G. Magerl, E. Bonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 452 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 14 (1969); D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Eesley, G. L.

M. D. Levenson, G. L. Eesley, Appl. Phys. 19, 1 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Eesley, M. D. Levenson, W. M. Tolles, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 192 (1978).

Golyaev, Y. D.

S. A. Akhmanov, Y. D. Golyaev, S. V. Lantratov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 758 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. W.

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 14 (1969); D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurtry, E. O. Ammann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 185 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Lantratov, S. V.

S. A. Akhmanov, Y. D. Golyaev, S. V. Lantratov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 758 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson, G. L. Eesley, Appl. Phys. 19, 1 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Eesley, M. D. Levenson, W. M. Tolles, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 192 (1978).

McMurtry, B. J.

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurtry, E. O. Ammann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 185 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Oshman, M. K.

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurtry, E. O. Ammann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 185 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Owyoung, A.

A. Owyoung, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 192 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, D. B.

J. E. Bjorkholm, E. H. Turner, D. B. Pearson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 564 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

C. L. Tang, J. M. Telle, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4503 (1974); E. I. Moses, C. L. Tang, Opt. Lett. 1, 115 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Telle, J. M.

C. L. Tang, J. M. Telle, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4503 (1974); E. I. Moses, C. L. Tang, Opt. Lett. 1, 115 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tolles, W. M.

G. L. Eesley, M. D. Levenson, W. M. Tolles, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 192 (1978).

Turner, E. H.

J. E. Bjorkholm, E. H. Turner, D. B. Pearson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 564 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys.

M. D. Levenson, G. L. Eesley, Appl. Phys. 19, 1 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. M. Carter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 810 (1978); G. Magerl, E. Bonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 452 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurtry, E. O. Ammann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 185 (1965).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 14 (1969); D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, E. H. Turner, D. B. Pearson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 564 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. L. Eesley, M. D. Levenson, W. M. Tolles, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 192 (1978).

A. Owyoung, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 192 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. L. Tang, J. M. Telle, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4503 (1974); E. I. Moses, C. L. Tang, Opt. Lett. 1, 115 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today

R. G. Brewer, Phys. Today 30(5), 50 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

S. A. Akhmanov, Y. D. Golyaev, S. V. Lantratov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 758 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Cardona, Modulation Spectroscopy, Supplement II of Solid State Physics, F. Seitz, D. Turnbull, eds. (Academic, New York, 1969).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical experimental arrangement for FM spectroscopy.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frequency-domain illustration of FM spectroscopy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental and theoretical line shapes for FM spectroscopy of a Fabry–Perot resonance: (a) experimental in-phase signal, (b) theoretical in-phase signal, (c) experimental quadrature signal, (d) theoretical quadrature signal.

Equations (5)

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E 2 ( t ) = E 0 2 n = - J n ( M ) exp [ i ( ω c + n ω m ) t ] + c . c . ,
E ˜ 3 ( t ) = E 0 [ T 0 e i ω c t + T 1 M 2 e i ( ω c + ω m ) t - T - 1 M 2 e i ( ω c - ω m ) t ] .
I 3 ( t ) = c E 0 2 8 π e - 2 δ 0 { 1 + [ e δ 0 - δ 1 cos ( ϕ 1 - ϕ 0 ) - e δ 0 - δ - 1 cos ( ϕ 0 - ϕ - 1 ) ] M cos ω m t + [ e δ 0 - δ 1 sin ( ϕ 1 - ϕ 0 ) - e δ 0 - δ - 1 sin ( ϕ 0 - ϕ - 1 ) ] M sin ω m t } .
I 3 ( t ) = c E 0 2 8 π e - 2 δ 0 [ 1 + ( δ - 1 - δ 1 ) M cos ω m t + ( ϕ 1 + ϕ - 1 - 2 ϕ 0 ) M sin ω m t ] ,
I 3 ( t ) = c E 0 2 8 π e - 2 δ ¯ [ 1 - Δ δ M cos ω m t + Δ ϕ M sin ω m t ] .

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