Abstract

A non-diaphragm fiber gas pressure sensor based on a multimode interferometer (MI) using a hollow-core tube lattice fiber (HC-TLF) as a gas cell is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor is fabricated by fusion splicing a sandwich structure of a graded-index multimode fiber, HC-TLF, and lead-in/out single mode fiber. Several side-holes are drilled by using a femtosecond laser on the side wall of the HC-TLF to allow gas in and out of the fiber. The positions of side-hole in HC-TLF have been investigated during the experiments, which indicate that the highest gas pressure sensitivity existed as the side-hole located in the gap between adjacent cladding holes of the HC-TLF. The proposed structure exhibits a high sensitivity of 8.1 nm/MPa with the average gas fill time of 2.2 s. This sensor also has low temperature sensitivity and low temperature cross sensitivity of 12.3 pm/°C and 1.5 kPa/°C as the temperature rises to 400°C. In addition, the advantages of the gas pressure sensor, such as small size, rapid response, low temperature cross sensitivity, and simple fabrication process, make it suitable for high-pressure measurement in harsh conditions, e.g., downhole and ocean bottom.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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P. G. Jia, G. C. Fang, T. Liang, Y. P. Hong, Q. L. Tan, X. Y. Chen, W. Y. Liu, C. Y. Xue, J. Liu, W. D. Zhang, and J. J. Xiong, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 244, 226 (2017).
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H. C. Gao, Y. Jiang, L. C. Zhang, Y. Cui, Y. Jiang, J. S. Jia, and L. Jiang, Optics Express 27, 22181 (2019).
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L. Zhang, Y. Jiang, H. Gao, J. Jia, Y. Cui, W. Ma, S. Wang, and J. Hu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 90, 025005 (2019).
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J. Tang, Z. Zhang, G. L. Yin, S. Liu, Z. Y. Bai, Z. Y. Li, M. Deng, Y. Wang, C. R. Liao, J. He, W. Jin, G. D. Peng, and Y. P. Wang, IEEE Sensors Journal 9, 7105307 (2017).
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Jun, H.

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Li, J. L.

T. M. Zhao, J. L. Li, H. Zeng, Y. M. Fu, H. X. He, L. L. Xing, Y. Zhang, and X. Y. Xue, Nanotechnology 29, 405504 (2018).
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Li, Z.

Z. Li, Y. X. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, L. X. Kong, T. Y. Yan, P. C. Geng, and B. Wang, J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 3444 (2019).
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Li, Z. Y.

Liang, T.

P. G. Jia, G. C. Fang, T. Liang, Y. P. Hong, Q. L. Tan, X. Y. Chen, W. Y. Liu, C. Y. Xue, J. Liu, W. D. Zhang, and J. J. Xiong, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 244, 226 (2017).
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Liao, C. R.

Liu, J.

P. G. Jia, G. C. Fang, T. Liang, Y. P. Hong, Q. L. Tan, X. Y. Chen, W. Y. Liu, C. Y. Xue, J. Liu, W. D. Zhang, and J. J. Xiong, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 244, 226 (2017).
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Liu, S.

Liu, W. Y.

P. G. Jia, G. C. Fang, T. Liang, Y. P. Hong, Q. L. Tan, X. Y. Chen, W. Y. Liu, C. Y. Xue, J. Liu, W. D. Zhang, and J. J. Xiong, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 244, 226 (2017).
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Liu, Y.

S. X. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Y. Guo, A. Zhou, and L. B. Yuan, IEEE Sens. J. 19, 2148 (2019).
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Luo, J. X.

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F. Ahmed, V. Ahsani, K. Nazeri, E. Marzband, C. Bradley, E. Toyserkani, and M. B. G. Jun, Sensors 19, 3357 (2019).
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Nazeri, K.

F. Ahmed, V. Ahsani, K. Nazeri, E. Marzband, C. Bradley, E. Toyserkani, and M. B. G. Jun, Sensors 19, 3357 (2019).
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Osorio, J. H.

J. H. Osorio, G. Chesini, V. A. Serrao, M. A. R. Franco, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, Scientific Reports 7, 2290 (2017).
[Crossref]

Peng, G. D.

J. Tang, Z. Zhang, G. L. Yin, S. Liu, Z. Y. Bai, Z. Y. Li, M. Deng, Y. Wang, C. R. Liao, J. He, W. Jin, G. D. Peng, and Y. P. Wang, IEEE Sensors Journal 9, 7105307 (2017).
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Qu, H.

H. J. Chen, X. H. Hu, M. F. He, P. F. Ren, C. Zhang, and H. Qu, Sensors 20, 1191 (2020).
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Ren, P. F.

H. J. Chen, X. H. Hu, M. F. He, P. F. Ren, C. Zhang, and H. Qu, Sensors 20, 1191 (2020).
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Rosa, L.

Serrao, V. A.

J. H. Osorio, G. Chesini, V. A. Serrao, M. A. R. Franco, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, Scientific Reports 7, 2290 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shen, L.

Tan, Q. L.

P. G. Jia, G. C. Fang, T. Liang, Y. P. Hong, Q. L. Tan, X. Y. Chen, W. Y. Liu, C. Y. Xue, J. Liu, W. D. Zhang, and J. J. Xiong, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 244, 226 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.

Z. Zhang, C. R. Liao, J. Tang, Z. Y. Bai, K. K. Guo, M. X. Hou, J. He, Y. Wang, S. Liu, F. Zhang, and Y. P. Wang, J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 4067 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Tang, Z. Zhang, G. L. Yin, S. Liu, Z. Y. Bai, Z. Y. Li, M. Deng, Y. Wang, C. R. Liao, J. He, W. Jin, G. D. Peng, and Y. P. Wang, IEEE Sensors Journal 9, 7105307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Toyserkani, E.

F. Ahmed, V. Ahsani, K. Nazeri, E. Marzband, C. Bradley, E. Toyserkani, and M. B. G. Jun, Sensors 19, 3357 (2019).
[Crossref]

Turner, J.

Vincetti, L.

Wang, B.

Z. Li, Y. X. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, L. X. Kong, T. Y. Yan, P. C. Geng, and B. Wang, J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 3444 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, D. N.

Wang, Q.

Wang, S.

L. Zhang, Y. Jiang, H. Gao, J. Jia, Y. Cui, W. Ma, S. Wang, and J. Hu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 90, 025005 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Y. P.

Xing, L. L.

T. M. Zhao, J. L. Li, H. Zeng, Y. M. Fu, H. X. He, L. L. Xing, Y. Zhang, and X. Y. Xue, Nanotechnology 29, 405504 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xiong, J. J.

P. G. Jia, G. C. Fang, T. Liang, Y. P. Hong, Q. L. Tan, X. Y. Chen, W. Y. Liu, C. Y. Xue, J. Liu, W. D. Zhang, and J. J. Xiong, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 244, 226 (2017).
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Xu, L.

Xu, X.

Xue, C. Y.

P. G. Jia, G. C. Fang, T. Liang, Y. P. Hong, Q. L. Tan, X. Y. Chen, W. Y. Liu, C. Y. Xue, J. Liu, W. D. Zhang, and J. J. Xiong, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 244, 226 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xue, X. Y.

T. M. Zhao, J. L. Li, H. Zeng, Y. M. Fu, H. X. He, L. L. Xing, Y. Zhang, and X. Y. Xue, Nanotechnology 29, 405504 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yan, T. Y.

Z. Li, Y. X. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, L. X. Kong, T. Y. Yan, P. C. Geng, and B. Wang, J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 3444 (2019).
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Yang, K. M.

Yin, G. L.

J. Tang, Z. Zhang, G. L. Yin, S. Liu, Z. Y. Bai, Z. Y. Li, M. Deng, Y. Wang, C. R. Liao, J. He, W. Jin, G. D. Peng, and Y. P. Wang, IEEE Sensors Journal 9, 7105307 (2017).
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Yuan, L. B.

S. X. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Y. Guo, A. Zhou, and L. B. Yuan, IEEE Sens. J. 19, 2148 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

T. M. Zhao, J. L. Li, H. Zeng, Y. M. Fu, H. X. He, L. L. Xing, Y. Zhang, and X. Y. Xue, Nanotechnology 29, 405504 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

H. J. Chen, X. H. Hu, M. F. He, P. F. Ren, C. Zhang, and H. Qu, Sensors 20, 1191 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, Y. Jiang, H. Gao, J. Jia, Y. Cui, W. Ma, S. Wang, and J. Hu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 90, 025005 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. C.

H. C. Gao, Y. Jiang, L. C. Zhang, Y. Cui, Y. Jiang, J. S. Jia, and L. Jiang, Optics Express 27, 22181 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. X.

S. X. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Y. Guo, A. Zhou, and L. B. Yuan, IEEE Sens. J. 19, 2148 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W. D.

P. G. Jia, G. C. Fang, T. Liang, Y. P. Hong, Q. L. Tan, X. Y. Chen, W. Y. Liu, C. Y. Xue, J. Liu, W. D. Zhang, and J. J. Xiong, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 244, 226 (2017).
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Zhang, W. G.

Z. Li, Y. X. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, L. X. Kong, T. Y. Yan, P. C. Geng, and B. Wang, J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 3444 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

T. M. Zhao, J. L. Li, H. Zeng, Y. M. Fu, H. X. He, L. L. Xing, Y. Zhang, and X. Y. Xue, Nanotechnology 29, 405504 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. X.

Z. Li, Y. X. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, L. X. Kong, T. Y. Yan, P. C. Geng, and B. Wang, J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 3444 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, C. R. Liao, J. Tang, Z. Y. Bai, K. K. Guo, M. X. Hou, J. He, Y. Wang, S. Liu, F. Zhang, and Y. P. Wang, J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 4067 (2017).
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J. Tang, Z. Zhang, G. L. Yin, S. Liu, Z. Y. Bai, Z. Y. Li, M. Deng, Y. Wang, C. R. Liao, J. He, W. Jin, G. D. Peng, and Y. P. Wang, IEEE Sensors Journal 9, 7105307 (2017).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the gas pressure sensor.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Microscope image of the MI sensor. The cross section of the fibers: (b) SMF, (c) GIF, (d) HC-TLF with the side-hole in cladding hole, and (e) HC-TLF with side-hole between adjacent cladding holes.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Transmission spectra of the structure without and with GIF. Inset: the Fourier transforms of the transmission spectra in (a). (b) Transmission spectra of the MIs with the HC-TLF lengths of 3.2, 5, and 6 cm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Relationship between relative dip wavelength shift of the transmission spectra and gas pressure (a) with different locations of side-holes such as without a side-hole, a side-hole in the cladding, and in the core and (b) with different HC-TLF lengths of 2.5, 3.5, and 5 cm. Inset: the transmission spectra varying with applied gas pressure in (a) and (b).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Response of the proposed MI sensor during the increasing and decreasing gas pressure.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Relationship between relative dip wavelength shift and temperature. Inset: the transmission spectra evaluation via the temperature increasing to 400°C.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Compared with Other Gas Pressure Sensors

Equations (3)

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( β m β n ) L = 2 π N ,
λ m = 2 2 m + 1 Δ n e f f L ,
λ P = 2 Δ n e f f L G P + Δ n e f f L H P + ( 2 L G + L H ) Δ n e f f P ,

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