Abstract

Nonlinear optics-based optical signal processing (OSP) could potentially increase network flexibility because of its transparency, tunability, and large bandwidth. A low-loss, high nonlinearity, and compact integrated material platform is always the pursuit of OSP. In this Letter, a high-efficiency, one-to-six wavelength multicasting of 10 Gbaud pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM3/PAM4) signals using a 6 cm long ${{\rm Al}_{0.2}}{{\rm Ga}_{0.8}}{\rm As}$-on-insulator nanowaveguide is experimentally demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The low-loss, combined with the high nonlinear coefficient of the AlGaAsOI platform, enables us to achieve ${-}{11.2}\;{\rm dB}$ average conversion efficiency clear eye diagrams and ${\lt} 2.1\;{\rm dB}$ power penalty at KP4-forward error correction threshold (${2.4} \times {{10}^{- 4}}$) for all the output PAM3/PAM4 multicasting channels. This result points to a new generation of nonlinear OSP photonic integrated circuits.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Liu, S.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. B. Bowers, Nat. Commun. 11, 1331 (2020).
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Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

Long, Y.

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Minzioni, P.

Mitchell, A.

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H. Hu, F. Ros, M. Pu, F. Ye, K. Ingerslev, E. Silva, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, T. Mizuno, T. Morioka, and L. Oxenlowe, Nat. Photonics 12, 469 (2018).
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Moille, G.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. B. Bowers, Nat. Commun. 11, 1331 (2020).
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D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 7, 597 (2013).
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H. Hu, F. Ros, M. Pu, F. Ye, K. Ingerslev, E. Silva, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, T. Mizuno, T. Morioka, and L. Oxenlowe, Nat. Photonics 12, 469 (2018).
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Moss, D. J.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 7, 597 (2013).
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Murphy, T. E.

Nathalie, P.

Ng, D. K. T.

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M. Pu, H. Hu, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, D. Vukovic, L. Oxenlowe, and K. Yvind, Laser Photonics Rev. 12, 1800111 (2018).
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M. Pu, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, and K. Yvind, Optica 3, 823 (2016).
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H. Hu, F. Ros, M. Pu, F. Ye, K. Ingerslev, E. Silva, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, T. Mizuno, T. Morioka, and L. Oxenlowe, Nat. Photonics 12, 469 (2018).
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M. Pu, H. Hu, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, D. Vukovic, L. Oxenlowe, and K. Yvind, Laser Photonics Rev. 12, 1800111 (2018).
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Oxenlowe, L. K.

Papp, S.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. B. Bowers, Nat. Commun. 11, 1331 (2020).
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Pawel, L.

Peters, J.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. B. Bowers, Nat. Commun. 11, 1331 (2020).
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Petrillo, K.

Plant, D.

M. Ghagnon, M. Spasojevic, R. Adams, J. Li, D. Plant, and L. R. Chen, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 860 (2015).
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Porkolab, G. A.

Pu, M.

D. Kong, M. Pu, Y. Liu, Y. Zheng, E. Semenova, K. Yvind, L. K. Oxenlowe, M. Galili, and H. Hao, Opt. Lett. 45, 889 (2020).
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M. Pu, H. Hu, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, D. Vukovic, L. Oxenlowe, and K. Yvind, Laser Photonics Rev. 12, 1800111 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, F. Ros, M. Pu, F. Ye, K. Ingerslev, E. Silva, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, T. Mizuno, T. Morioka, and L. Oxenlowe, Nat. Photonics 12, 469 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, and K. Yvind, Optica 3, 823 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, and K. Yvind, Opt. Express 19, 24448 (2011).
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Pusino, V.

Qin, J.

J. Qin, H. Shu, L. Chang, W. Xie, Y. Tao, M. Jin, X. Wang, and J. E. Bowers, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper SM4L.6.

Ren, G.

Richardson, C.

Ros, F.

H. Hu, F. Ros, M. Pu, F. Ye, K. Ingerslev, E. Silva, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, T. Mizuno, T. Morioka, and L. Oxenlowe, Nat. Photonics 12, 469 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, Y.

H. Hu, F. Ros, M. Pu, F. Ye, K. Ingerslev, E. Silva, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, T. Mizuno, T. Morioka, and L. Oxenlowe, Nat. Photonics 12, 469 (2018).
[Crossref]

Semenova, E.

Shen, B.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. B. Bowers, Nat. Commun. 11, 1331 (2020).
[Crossref]

Shen, M.

Shu, H.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. B. Bowers, Nat. Commun. 11, 1331 (2020).
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J. Qin, H. Shu, L. Chang, W. Xie, Y. Tao, M. Jin, X. Wang, and J. E. Bowers, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper SM4L.6.

Silva, E.

H. Hu, F. Ros, M. Pu, F. Ye, K. Ingerslev, E. Silva, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, T. Mizuno, T. Morioka, and L. Oxenlowe, Nat. Photonics 12, 469 (2018).
[Crossref]

Spasojevic, M.

M. Ghagnon, M. Spasojevic, R. Adams, J. Li, D. Plant, and L. R. Chen, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 860 (2015).
[Crossref]

Spencer, D. T.

L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. Kennedy, and J. E. Bowers, Laser Photonics Rev. 12, 1800149 (2018).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, K.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. B. Bowers, Nat. Commun. 11, 1331 (2020).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, S.

A. Liu, S. Srinivasan, A. Gossard, and J. Bowers, Photonics Res. 3, B1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stroud, J.

Sun, H.

Tan, D. T. H.

D. T. H. Tan, K. J. A. Ooi, and D. K. T. Ng, Photonics Res. 6, B50 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tao, Y.

J. Qin, H. Shu, L. Chang, W. Xie, Y. Tao, M. Jin, X. Wang, and J. E. Bowers, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper SM4L.6.

Ting, H. F.

Tong, H.

Tur, M.

Vahala, K.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. B. Bowers, Nat. Commun. 11, 1331 (2020).
[Crossref]

Vukovic, D.

M. Pu, H. Hu, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, D. Vukovic, L. Oxenlowe, and K. Yvind, Laser Photonics Rev. 12, 1800111 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, A.

Wang, J.

Wang, K.

Wang, X.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. B. Bowers, Nat. Commun. 11, 1331 (2020).
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Wathen, J. J.

Willner, A. E.

Willner, A. N.

Xiang, C.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. B. Bowers, Nat. Commun. 11, 1331 (2020).
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Xie, W.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. B. Bowers, Nat. Commun. 11, 1331 (2020).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic drawing of the waveguide cross section, (b) calculated GVD versus wavelength for 400 nm thick ${{\rm Al}_{0.2}}{{\rm Ga}_{0.8}}{\rm AsOI}$ waveguides with different widths, (c) SEM of the sidewall of the as-etched AlGaAs waveguide, and (d) SEM image of the cross section of a waveguide with a ${\sim}{100}\;{\rm nm}$ ${{\rm SiO}_2}$ cladding for protection.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of PAM3/PAM4 wavelength multicasting based on a AlGaAsOI nanowaveguide chip.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup. PC, polarization controller; OC, optical coupler; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; OBPF, optical bandpass filter; ATT, attenuator; PD, photodetector.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Spectra at the output of the chip, (b) average CE of the multicasting channels across the whole C band which matches well with the simulation results.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Demodulated signal amplitude, waveform, and eye diagram of BTB, and the multicasting channels at ${\lambda _a}$ (with the highest CE) and ${\lambda _b}$ (with the lowest CE) for PAM3 (a)–(f) and PAM4 (g)–(l). (Insets: corresponding waveforms for PAM3 and PAM4).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. BER performance of the BTB and the output multicasting channels for (a) PAM3 and (b) PAM4.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Power Relationship of Signal, Pumps, and Idlers

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