Abstract

The frequency degeneracy induced by the astigmatism in a nearly hemispherical cavity is originally exploited to generate vortex array laser modes with the output power up to 300 mW. The inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation is employed to derive the wave function for manifesting the characteristics of the lasing modes. The theoretical wave function explicitly reveals the role of the Gouy phase in the formation of vortex arrays. Numerical analyses are further performed to confirm that the thermal lensing effect in the laser crystal assists the lasing transverse order to increase with increasing pump power. It is believed that the high efficiency enables the present laser modes to be useful in the applications of structured vortex beams.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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