Abstract

We demonstrate the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of near-field binary phase transmission diffractive optical elements (DOEs) in single crystal diamond. Top-hat and arbitrary pattern DOE beam shapers were numerically optimized using an iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA). Commercially available single crystal diamond plates (${{3}}\;{\rm{mm}} \times {{3}}\;{\rm{mm}} \times {0.3}\;{\rm{mm}}$) were patterned using hardmask deposition ($\alpha$-Si), e-beam lithography, and ${{\rm{O}}_2}$ plasma-based diamond reactive ion etching. The resulting binary phase relief patterns were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experimental characterization of the single crystal diamond DOEs in transmission at $\lambda = 532\;{\rm{nm}}$ confirms excellent uniformity of the resulting top-hat beam profile as required in copper welding applications.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (4)

A. Shams-Ansari, P. Latawiec, Y. Okawachi, V. Venkataraman, M. Yu, B. Desiatov, H. Atikian, G. L. Harris, N. Picque, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Loncar, Opt. Lett. 44, 4056 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Kiss, T. Graziosi, A. Toros, T. Scharf, C. Santschi, O. J. F. Martin, and N. Quack, Opt. Express 27, 30371 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Mi, A. Toros, T. Graziosi, and N. Quack, Diamond Relat. Mater. 92, 248 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Dory, D. Vercruysse, K. Y. Yang, N. V. Sapra, A. E. Rugar, S. Sun, D. M. Lukin, A. Y. Piggott, J. L. Zhang, M. Radulaski, K. G. Lagoudakis, L. Su, and J. Vučković, Nat. Commun. 10, 3309 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

N. H. Wan, S. Mouradian, and D. Englund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 141102 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kiss, T. Graziosi, and N. Quack, Proc. SPIE 10513, 105131K (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

T.-F. Zhu, J. Fu, F. Lin, M. Zhang, W. Wang, F. Wen, X. Zhang, R. Bu, J. Zhang, J. Zhu, J. Wang, H.-X. Wang, and X. Hou, Diam. Relat. Mater. 80, 54 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

C. Kong, M. Bolut, J. Sundqvist, A. Kaplan, E. Assunção, L. Quintino, and J. Blackburn, Phys. Procedia 83, 1217 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

R. J. Williams, J. Nold, M. Strecker, O. Kitzler, A. McKay, T. Schreiber, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 405 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Anoikin, A. Muhr, A. Bennett, D. Twitchen, and H. de Wit, Proc. SPIE 9346, 93460T (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhong, S. Zhang, and F. Wyrowski, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32, 124 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Khanaliloo, M. Mitchell, A. C. Hryciw, and P. E. Barclay, Nano Lett. 15, 5131 (2015).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Kell, J. R. Tyrer, R. L. Higginson, J. C. Jones, and S. Noden, Mater. Sci. Technol. 28, 354 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

U. Umhofer, E. Jäger, and C. Bischoff, Laser Tech. J. 8, 24 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Waddie, A. J. Caley, M. Taghizadeh, and K. K. Jobbins, Proc. SPIE 7070, 70700H (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Pasienski and B. DeMarco, Opt. Express 16, 2176 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

H. W. Choi, E. Gu, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 130 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (5)

N. Kuzuu, K. Yoshida, K. Ochi, Y. Tsuboi, T. Kamimura, H. Yoshida, and Y. Namba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2547 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuroiwa, N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, S. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, Opt. Express 12, 1908 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. E. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4158 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. P. H. Olivier Ripoll and V. Kettunen, Opt. Eng. 43, 1 (2004).
[Crossref]

U. Levy, E. Marom, and D. Mendlovic, Opt. Commun. 229, 11 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

M. Karlsson and F. Nikolajeff, Opt. Express 11, 191 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Ciofini, A. Lapucci, and S. Lolli, J. Opt. A 5, 186 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Sbreve Keren, I. Richter, and P. Fiala, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1851 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. B. Hammond, E. G. Johnson, C. S. Koehler, J. D. Stack, T. J. Suleski, A. Kar, and W. Guo, Proc. SPIE 3633, 206 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

C. A. Klein, Proc. SPIE 2428, 517 (1995).
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1994 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1971 (1)

R. Gerchberg and A. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1971).

1964 (1)

H. R. Phillip and E. A. Taft, Phys. Rev. 136, A1445 (1964).
[Crossref]

Anoikin, E.

E. Anoikin, A. Muhr, A. Bennett, D. Twitchen, and H. de Wit, Proc. SPIE 9346, 93460T (2015).
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Assunção, E.

C. Kong, M. Bolut, J. Sundqvist, A. Kaplan, E. Assunção, L. Quintino, and J. Blackburn, Phys. Procedia 83, 1217 (2016).
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Atikian, H.

A. Shams-Ansari, P. Latawiec, Y. Okawachi, V. Venkataraman, M. Yu, B. Desiatov, H. Atikian, G. L. Harris, N. Picque, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Loncar, Opt. Lett. 44, 4056 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Atikian, P. Latawiec, X. Xiong, S. Meesala, S. Gauthier, D. Wintz, J. Randi, D. Bernot, S. DeFrances, J. Thomas, M. Roman, S. Durrant, F. Capasso, and M. Loncar, “Diamond mirror for high power lasers,” arXiv:1909.06458 physics. (2019).

Barclay, P. E.

B. Khanaliloo, M. Mitchell, A. C. Hryciw, and P. E. Barclay, Nano Lett. 15, 5131 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bell, R. E.

R. E. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4158 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bengtsson, J.

Bennett, A.

E. Anoikin, A. Muhr, A. Bennett, D. Twitchen, and H. de Wit, Proc. SPIE 9346, 93460T (2015).
[Crossref]

Bernot, D.

H. Atikian, P. Latawiec, X. Xiong, S. Meesala, S. Gauthier, D. Wintz, J. Randi, D. Bernot, S. DeFrances, J. Thomas, M. Roman, S. Durrant, F. Capasso, and M. Loncar, “Diamond mirror for high power lasers,” arXiv:1909.06458 physics. (2019).

Bischoff, C.

U. Umhofer, E. Jäger, and C. Bischoff, Laser Tech. J. 8, 24 (2011).
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Blackburn, J.

C. Kong, M. Bolut, J. Sundqvist, A. Kaplan, E. Assunção, L. Quintino, and J. Blackburn, Phys. Procedia 83, 1217 (2016).
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Bolut, M.

C. Kong, M. Bolut, J. Sundqvist, A. Kaplan, E. Assunção, L. Quintino, and J. Blackburn, Phys. Procedia 83, 1217 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bu, R.

T.-F. Zhu, J. Fu, F. Lin, M. Zhang, W. Wang, F. Wen, X. Zhang, R. Bu, J. Zhang, J. Zhu, J. Wang, H.-X. Wang, and X. Hou, Diam. Relat. Mater. 80, 54 (2017).
[Crossref]

Caley, A. J.

A. Waddie, A. J. Caley, M. Taghizadeh, and K. K. Jobbins, Proc. SPIE 7070, 70700H (2008).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

H. Atikian, P. Latawiec, X. Xiong, S. Meesala, S. Gauthier, D. Wintz, J. Randi, D. Bernot, S. DeFrances, J. Thomas, M. Roman, S. Durrant, F. Capasso, and M. Loncar, “Diamond mirror for high power lasers,” arXiv:1909.06458 physics. (2019).

Choi, H. W.

H. W. Choi, E. Gu, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 130 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ciofini, M.

M. Ciofini, A. Lapucci, and S. Lolli, J. Opt. A 5, 186 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

H. W. Choi, E. Gu, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 130 (2005).
[Crossref]

de Wit, H.

E. Anoikin, A. Muhr, A. Bennett, D. Twitchen, and H. de Wit, Proc. SPIE 9346, 93460T (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Muhr, D. Twitchen, and H. de Wit, IEEE Research and Applications of Photonics in Defense Conference (RAPID) (2018), pp. 1–4.

DeFrances, S.

H. Atikian, P. Latawiec, X. Xiong, S. Meesala, S. Gauthier, D. Wintz, J. Randi, D. Bernot, S. DeFrances, J. Thomas, M. Roman, S. Durrant, F. Capasso, and M. Loncar, “Diamond mirror for high power lasers,” arXiv:1909.06458 physics. (2019).

DeMarco, B.

Desiatov, B.

Dory, C.

C. Dory, D. Vercruysse, K. Y. Yang, N. V. Sapra, A. E. Rugar, S. Sun, D. M. Lukin, A. Y. Piggott, J. L. Zhang, M. Radulaski, K. G. Lagoudakis, L. Su, and J. Vučković, Nat. Commun. 10, 3309 (2019).
[Crossref]

Durrant, S.

H. Atikian, P. Latawiec, X. Xiong, S. Meesala, S. Gauthier, D. Wintz, J. Randi, D. Bernot, S. DeFrances, J. Thomas, M. Roman, S. Durrant, F. Capasso, and M. Loncar, “Diamond mirror for high power lasers,” arXiv:1909.06458 physics. (2019).

Englund, D.

N. H. Wan, S. Mouradian, and D. Englund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 141102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fiala, P.

M. Sbreve Keren, I. Richter, and P. Fiala, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1851 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fu, J.

T.-F. Zhu, J. Fu, F. Lin, M. Zhang, W. Wang, F. Wen, X. Zhang, R. Bu, J. Zhang, J. Zhu, J. Wang, H.-X. Wang, and X. Hou, Diam. Relat. Mater. 80, 54 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gauthier, S.

H. Atikian, P. Latawiec, X. Xiong, S. Meesala, S. Gauthier, D. Wintz, J. Randi, D. Bernot, S. DeFrances, J. Thomas, M. Roman, S. Durrant, F. Capasso, and M. Loncar, “Diamond mirror for high power lasers,” arXiv:1909.06458 physics. (2019).

Gerchberg, R.

R. Gerchberg and A. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1971).

Girkin, J. M.

H. W. Choi, E. Gu, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 130 (2005).
[Crossref]

Graziosi, T.

M. Kiss, T. Graziosi, A. Toros, T. Scharf, C. Santschi, O. J. F. Martin, and N. Quack, Opt. Express 27, 30371 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Mi, A. Toros, T. Graziosi, and N. Quack, Diamond Relat. Mater. 92, 248 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Kiss, T. Graziosi, and N. Quack, Proc. SPIE 10513, 105131K (2018).
[Crossref]

Griffin, C.

H. W. Choi, E. Gu, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 130 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

H. W. Choi, E. Gu, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 130 (2005).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

J. B. Hammond, E. G. Johnson, C. S. Koehler, J. D. Stack, T. J. Suleski, A. Kar, and W. Guo, Proc. SPIE 3633, 206 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hammond, J. B.

J. B. Hammond, E. G. Johnson, C. S. Koehler, J. D. Stack, T. J. Suleski, A. Kar, and W. Guo, Proc. SPIE 3633, 206 (1999).
[Crossref]

Harris, G. L.

Hermerschmidt, A.

Higginson, R. L.

J. Kell, J. R. Tyrer, R. L. Higginson, J. C. Jones, and S. Noden, Mater. Sci. Technol. 28, 354 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

Hou, X.

T.-F. Zhu, J. Fu, F. Lin, M. Zhang, W. Wang, F. Wen, X. Zhang, R. Bu, J. Zhang, J. Zhu, J. Wang, H.-X. Wang, and X. Hou, Diam. Relat. Mater. 80, 54 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hryciw, A. C.

B. Khanaliloo, M. Mitchell, A. C. Hryciw, and P. E. Barclay, Nano Lett. 15, 5131 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ianni, F.

Jäger, E.

U. Umhofer, E. Jäger, and C. Bischoff, Laser Tech. J. 8, 24 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jobbins, K. K.

A. Waddie, A. J. Caley, M. Taghizadeh, and K. K. Jobbins, Proc. SPIE 7070, 70700H (2008).
[Crossref]

Johnson, E. G.

J. B. Hammond, E. G. Johnson, C. S. Koehler, J. D. Stack, T. J. Suleski, A. Kar, and W. Guo, Proc. SPIE 3633, 206 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jones, J. C.

J. Kell, J. R. Tyrer, R. L. Higginson, J. C. Jones, and S. Noden, Mater. Sci. Technol. 28, 354 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kamimura, T.

N. Kuzuu, K. Yoshida, K. Ochi, Y. Tsuboi, T. Kamimura, H. Yoshida, and Y. Namba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2547 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kaplan, A.

C. Kong, M. Bolut, J. Sundqvist, A. Kaplan, E. Assunção, L. Quintino, and J. Blackburn, Phys. Procedia 83, 1217 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kar, A.

J. B. Hammond, E. G. Johnson, C. S. Koehler, J. D. Stack, T. J. Suleski, A. Kar, and W. Guo, Proc. SPIE 3633, 206 (1999).
[Crossref]

Karlsson, M.

Kell, J.

J. Kell, J. R. Tyrer, R. L. Higginson, J. C. Jones, and S. Noden, Mater. Sci. Technol. 28, 354 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kettunen, V.

H. P. H. Olivier Ripoll and V. Kettunen, Opt. Eng. 43, 1 (2004).
[Crossref]

Khanaliloo, B.

B. Khanaliloo, M. Mitchell, A. C. Hryciw, and P. E. Barclay, Nano Lett. 15, 5131 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kiss, M.

Kitzler, O.

R. J. Williams, J. Nold, M. Strecker, O. Kitzler, A. McKay, T. Schreiber, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Klein, C. A.

C. A. Klein, Proc. SPIE 2428, 517 (1995).
[Crossref]

Koehler, C. S.

J. B. Hammond, E. G. Johnson, C. S. Koehler, J. D. Stack, T. J. Suleski, A. Kar, and W. Guo, Proc. SPIE 3633, 206 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kong, C.

C. Kong, M. Bolut, J. Sundqvist, A. Kaplan, E. Assunção, L. Quintino, and J. Blackburn, Phys. Procedia 83, 1217 (2016).
[Crossref]

Krüger, S.

Kuroiwa, Y.

Kuzuu, N.

N. Kuzuu, K. Yoshida, K. Ochi, Y. Tsuboi, T. Kamimura, H. Yoshida, and Y. Namba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2547 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lagoudakis, K. G.

C. Dory, D. Vercruysse, K. Y. Yang, N. V. Sapra, A. E. Rugar, S. Sun, D. M. Lukin, A. Y. Piggott, J. L. Zhang, M. Radulaski, K. G. Lagoudakis, L. Su, and J. Vučković, Nat. Commun. 10, 3309 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lapucci, A.

M. Ciofini, A. Lapucci, and S. Lolli, J. Opt. A 5, 186 (2003).
[Crossref]

Latawiec, P.

A. Shams-Ansari, P. Latawiec, Y. Okawachi, V. Venkataraman, M. Yu, B. Desiatov, H. Atikian, G. L. Harris, N. Picque, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Loncar, Opt. Lett. 44, 4056 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Atikian, P. Latawiec, X. Xiong, S. Meesala, S. Gauthier, D. Wintz, J. Randi, D. Bernot, S. DeFrances, J. Thomas, M. Roman, S. Durrant, F. Capasso, and M. Loncar, “Diamond mirror for high power lasers,” arXiv:1909.06458 physics. (2019).

Leonardo, R. D.

Levy, U.

U. Levy, E. Marom, and D. Mendlovic, Opt. Commun. 229, 11 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, F.

T.-F. Zhu, J. Fu, F. Lin, M. Zhang, W. Wang, F. Wen, X. Zhang, R. Bu, J. Zhang, J. Zhu, J. Wang, H.-X. Wang, and X. Hou, Diam. Relat. Mater. 80, 54 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

H. W. Choi, E. Gu, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 130 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lolli, S.

M. Ciofini, A. Lapucci, and S. Lolli, J. Opt. A 5, 186 (2003).
[Crossref]

Loncar, M.

A. Shams-Ansari, P. Latawiec, Y. Okawachi, V. Venkataraman, M. Yu, B. Desiatov, H. Atikian, G. L. Harris, N. Picque, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Loncar, Opt. Lett. 44, 4056 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Atikian, P. Latawiec, X. Xiong, S. Meesala, S. Gauthier, D. Wintz, J. Randi, D. Bernot, S. DeFrances, J. Thomas, M. Roman, S. Durrant, F. Capasso, and M. Loncar, “Diamond mirror for high power lasers,” arXiv:1909.06458 physics. (2019).

Lukin, D. M.

C. Dory, D. Vercruysse, K. Y. Yang, N. V. Sapra, A. E. Rugar, S. Sun, D. M. Lukin, A. Y. Piggott, J. L. Zhang, M. Radulaski, K. G. Lagoudakis, L. Su, and J. Vučković, Nat. Commun. 10, 3309 (2019).
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U. Levy, E. Marom, and D. Mendlovic, Opt. Commun. 229, 11 (2004).
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McKay, A.

R. J. Williams, J. Nold, M. Strecker, O. Kitzler, A. McKay, T. Schreiber, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meesala, S.

H. Atikian, P. Latawiec, X. Xiong, S. Meesala, S. Gauthier, D. Wintz, J. Randi, D. Bernot, S. DeFrances, J. Thomas, M. Roman, S. Durrant, F. Capasso, and M. Loncar, “Diamond mirror for high power lasers,” arXiv:1909.06458 physics. (2019).

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U. Levy, E. Marom, and D. Mendlovic, Opt. Commun. 229, 11 (2004).
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S. Mi, A. Toros, T. Graziosi, and N. Quack, Diamond Relat. Mater. 92, 248 (2019).
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R. J. Williams, J. Nold, M. Strecker, O. Kitzler, A. McKay, T. Schreiber, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 405 (2015).
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B. Khanaliloo, M. Mitchell, A. C. Hryciw, and P. E. Barclay, Nano Lett. 15, 5131 (2015).
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N. H. Wan, S. Mouradian, and D. Englund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 141102 (2018).
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E. Anoikin, A. Muhr, A. Bennett, D. Twitchen, and H. de Wit, Proc. SPIE 9346, 93460T (2015).
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A. Muhr, D. Twitchen, and H. de Wit, IEEE Research and Applications of Photonics in Defense Conference (RAPID) (2018), pp. 1–4.

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N. Kuzuu, K. Yoshida, K. Ochi, Y. Tsuboi, T. Kamimura, H. Yoshida, and Y. Namba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2547 (2004).
[Crossref]

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Nikolajeff, F.

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J. Kell, J. R. Tyrer, R. L. Higginson, J. C. Jones, and S. Noden, Mater. Sci. Technol. 28, 354 (2012).
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R. J. Williams, J. Nold, M. Strecker, O. Kitzler, A. McKay, T. Schreiber, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ochi, K.

N. Kuzuu, K. Yoshida, K. Ochi, Y. Tsuboi, T. Kamimura, H. Yoshida, and Y. Namba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2547 (2004).
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C. Dory, D. Vercruysse, K. Y. Yang, N. V. Sapra, A. E. Rugar, S. Sun, D. M. Lukin, A. Y. Piggott, J. L. Zhang, M. Radulaski, K. G. Lagoudakis, L. Su, and J. Vučković, Nat. Commun. 10, 3309 (2019).
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S. Mi, A. Toros, T. Graziosi, and N. Quack, Diamond Relat. Mater. 92, 248 (2019).
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C. Kong, M. Bolut, J. Sundqvist, A. Kaplan, E. Assunção, L. Quintino, and J. Blackburn, Phys. Procedia 83, 1217 (2016).
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C. Dory, D. Vercruysse, K. Y. Yang, N. V. Sapra, A. E. Rugar, S. Sun, D. M. Lukin, A. Y. Piggott, J. L. Zhang, M. Radulaski, K. G. Lagoudakis, L. Su, and J. Vučković, Nat. Commun. 10, 3309 (2019).
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H. Atikian, P. Latawiec, X. Xiong, S. Meesala, S. Gauthier, D. Wintz, J. Randi, D. Bernot, S. DeFrances, J. Thomas, M. Roman, S. Durrant, F. Capasso, and M. Loncar, “Diamond mirror for high power lasers,” arXiv:1909.06458 physics. (2019).

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H. Atikian, P. Latawiec, X. Xiong, S. Meesala, S. Gauthier, D. Wintz, J. Randi, D. Bernot, S. DeFrances, J. Thomas, M. Roman, S. Durrant, F. Capasso, and M. Loncar, “Diamond mirror for high power lasers,” arXiv:1909.06458 physics. (2019).

Rugar, A. E.

C. Dory, D. Vercruysse, K. Y. Yang, N. V. Sapra, A. E. Rugar, S. Sun, D. M. Lukin, A. Y. Piggott, J. L. Zhang, M. Radulaski, K. G. Lagoudakis, L. Su, and J. Vučković, Nat. Commun. 10, 3309 (2019).
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C. Dory, D. Vercruysse, K. Y. Yang, N. V. Sapra, A. E. Rugar, S. Sun, D. M. Lukin, A. Y. Piggott, J. L. Zhang, M. Radulaski, K. G. Lagoudakis, L. Su, and J. Vučković, Nat. Commun. 10, 3309 (2019).
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R. J. Williams, J. Nold, M. Strecker, O. Kitzler, A. McKay, T. Schreiber, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 405 (2015).
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R. J. Williams, J. Nold, M. Strecker, O. Kitzler, A. McKay, T. Schreiber, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 405 (2015).
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C. Dory, D. Vercruysse, K. Y. Yang, N. V. Sapra, A. E. Rugar, S. Sun, D. M. Lukin, A. Y. Piggott, J. L. Zhang, M. Radulaski, K. G. Lagoudakis, L. Su, and J. Vučković, Nat. Commun. 10, 3309 (2019).
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J. B. Hammond, E. G. Johnson, C. S. Koehler, J. D. Stack, T. J. Suleski, A. Kar, and W. Guo, Proc. SPIE 3633, 206 (1999).
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C. Dory, D. Vercruysse, K. Y. Yang, N. V. Sapra, A. E. Rugar, S. Sun, D. M. Lukin, A. Y. Piggott, J. L. Zhang, M. Radulaski, K. G. Lagoudakis, L. Su, and J. Vučković, Nat. Commun. 10, 3309 (2019).
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C. Kong, M. Bolut, J. Sundqvist, A. Kaplan, E. Assunção, L. Quintino, and J. Blackburn, Phys. Procedia 83, 1217 (2016).
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H. R. Phillip and E. A. Taft, Phys. Rev. 136, A1445 (1964).
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A. Waddie, A. J. Caley, M. Taghizadeh, and K. K. Jobbins, Proc. SPIE 7070, 70700H (2008).
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H. Atikian, P. Latawiec, X. Xiong, S. Meesala, S. Gauthier, D. Wintz, J. Randi, D. Bernot, S. DeFrances, J. Thomas, M. Roman, S. Durrant, F. Capasso, and M. Loncar, “Diamond mirror for high power lasers,” arXiv:1909.06458 physics. (2019).

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J. Turunen and F. Wyrowski, Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications (Wiley, 1997).

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E. Anoikin, A. Muhr, A. Bennett, D. Twitchen, and H. de Wit, Proc. SPIE 9346, 93460T (2015).
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A. Muhr, D. Twitchen, and H. de Wit, IEEE Research and Applications of Photonics in Defense Conference (RAPID) (2018), pp. 1–4.

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C. Dory, D. Vercruysse, K. Y. Yang, N. V. Sapra, A. E. Rugar, S. Sun, D. M. Lukin, A. Y. Piggott, J. L. Zhang, M. Radulaski, K. G. Lagoudakis, L. Su, and J. Vučković, Nat. Commun. 10, 3309 (2019).
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N. H. Wan, S. Mouradian, and D. Englund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 141102 (2018).
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H. Atikian, P. Latawiec, X. Xiong, S. Meesala, S. Gauthier, D. Wintz, J. Randi, D. Bernot, S. DeFrances, J. Thomas, M. Roman, S. Durrant, F. Capasso, and M. Loncar, “Diamond mirror for high power lasers,” arXiv:1909.06458 physics. (2019).

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H. Atikian, P. Latawiec, X. Xiong, S. Meesala, S. Gauthier, D. Wintz, J. Randi, D. Bernot, S. DeFrances, J. Thomas, M. Roman, S. Durrant, F. Capasso, and M. Loncar, “Diamond mirror for high power lasers,” arXiv:1909.06458 physics. (2019).

Yang, K. Y.

C. Dory, D. Vercruysse, K. Y. Yang, N. V. Sapra, A. E. Rugar, S. Sun, D. M. Lukin, A. Y. Piggott, J. L. Zhang, M. Radulaski, K. G. Lagoudakis, L. Su, and J. Vučković, Nat. Commun. 10, 3309 (2019).
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N. Kuzuu, K. Yoshida, K. Ochi, Y. Tsuboi, T. Kamimura, H. Yoshida, and Y. Namba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2547 (2004).
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T.-F. Zhu, J. Fu, F. Lin, M. Zhang, W. Wang, F. Wen, X. Zhang, R. Bu, J. Zhang, J. Zhu, J. Wang, H.-X. Wang, and X. Hou, Diam. Relat. Mater. 80, 54 (2017).
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C. Dory, D. Vercruysse, K. Y. Yang, N. V. Sapra, A. E. Rugar, S. Sun, D. M. Lukin, A. Y. Piggott, J. L. Zhang, M. Radulaski, K. G. Lagoudakis, L. Su, and J. Vučković, Nat. Commun. 10, 3309 (2019).
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T.-F. Zhu, J. Fu, F. Lin, M. Zhang, W. Wang, F. Wen, X. Zhang, R. Bu, J. Zhang, J. Zhu, J. Wang, H.-X. Wang, and X. Hou, Diam. Relat. Mater. 80, 54 (2017).
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Zhang, X.

T.-F. Zhu, J. Fu, F. Lin, M. Zhang, W. Wang, F. Wen, X. Zhang, R. Bu, J. Zhang, J. Zhu, J. Wang, H.-X. Wang, and X. Hou, Diam. Relat. Mater. 80, 54 (2017).
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Zhu, J.

T.-F. Zhu, J. Fu, F. Lin, M. Zhang, W. Wang, F. Wen, X. Zhang, R. Bu, J. Zhang, J. Zhu, J. Wang, H.-X. Wang, and X. Hou, Diam. Relat. Mater. 80, 54 (2017).
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Zhu, T.-F.

T.-F. Zhu, J. Fu, F. Lin, M. Zhang, W. Wang, F. Wen, X. Zhang, R. Bu, J. Zhang, J. Zhu, J. Wang, H.-X. Wang, and X. Hou, Diam. Relat. Mater. 80, 54 (2017).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. H. Wan, S. Mouradian, and D. Englund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 141102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Diam. Relat. Mater. (1)

T.-F. Zhu, J. Fu, F. Lin, M. Zhang, W. Wang, F. Wen, X. Zhang, R. Bu, J. Zhang, J. Zhu, J. Wang, H.-X. Wang, and X. Hou, Diam. Relat. Mater. 80, 54 (2017).
[Crossref]

Diamond Relat. Mater. (1)

S. Mi, A. Toros, T. Graziosi, and N. Quack, Diamond Relat. Mater. 92, 248 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Sbreve Keren, I. Richter, and P. Fiala, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1851 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A (1)

M. Ciofini, A. Lapucci, and S. Lolli, J. Opt. A 5, 186 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

H. W. Choi, E. Gu, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 130 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Kuzuu, K. Yoshida, K. Ochi, Y. Tsuboi, T. Kamimura, H. Yoshida, and Y. Namba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2547 (2004).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

R. J. Williams, J. Nold, M. Strecker, O. Kitzler, A. McKay, T. Schreiber, and R. P. Mildren, Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser Tech. J. (1)

U. Umhofer, E. Jäger, and C. Bischoff, Laser Tech. J. 8, 24 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Kell, J. R. Tyrer, R. L. Higginson, J. C. Jones, and S. Noden, Mater. Sci. Technol. 28, 354 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

B. Khanaliloo, M. Mitchell, A. C. Hryciw, and P. E. Barclay, Nano Lett. 15, 5131 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

C. Dory, D. Vercruysse, K. Y. Yang, N. V. Sapra, A. E. Rugar, S. Sun, D. M. Lukin, A. Y. Piggott, J. L. Zhang, M. Radulaski, K. G. Lagoudakis, L. Su, and J. Vučković, Nat. Commun. 10, 3309 (2019).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

U. Levy, E. Marom, and D. Mendlovic, Opt. Commun. 229, 11 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H. P. H. Olivier Ripoll and V. Kettunen, Opt. Eng. 43, 1 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optik (1)

R. Gerchberg and A. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1971).

Phys. Procedia (1)

C. Kong, M. Bolut, J. Sundqvist, A. Kaplan, E. Assunção, L. Quintino, and J. Blackburn, Phys. Procedia 83, 1217 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. R. Phillip and E. A. Taft, Phys. Rev. 136, A1445 (1964).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (5)

A. Waddie, A. J. Caley, M. Taghizadeh, and K. K. Jobbins, Proc. SPIE 7070, 70700H (2008).
[Crossref]

J. B. Hammond, E. G. Johnson, C. S. Koehler, J. D. Stack, T. J. Suleski, A. Kar, and W. Guo, Proc. SPIE 3633, 206 (1999).
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M. Kiss, T. Graziosi, and N. Quack, Proc. SPIE 10513, 105131K (2018).
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E. Anoikin, A. Muhr, A. Bennett, D. Twitchen, and H. de Wit, Proc. SPIE 9346, 93460T (2015).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. E. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4158 (2004).
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Other (5)

J. Turunen and F. Wyrowski, Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications (Wiley, 1997).

A. Muhr, D. Twitchen, and H. de Wit, IEEE Research and Applications of Photonics in Defense Conference (RAPID) (2018), pp. 1–4.

H. Atikian, P. Latawiec, X. Xiong, S. Meesala, S. Gauthier, D. Wintz, J. Randi, D. Bernot, S. DeFrances, J. Thomas, M. Roman, S. Durrant, F. Capasso, and M. Loncar, “Diamond mirror for high power lasers,” arXiv:1909.06458 physics. (2019).

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, 2006).

http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.10059686 .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Operating principle. (a) Working principle of our DOE: collimated beam is phase-modulated by the DOE resulting in diffraction with the designed transverse beam intensity profile at a set distance from the DOE. (b) Binary phase profile of our DOE made of a $3000 \times 3000$ grid ( ${{1}} \times {{1}}\;{\rm{\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}}$ resolution). The black and white regions represent the 0 and $\pi$ phase levels, respectively. (c) Subsection of our DOE showing the computer-generated features designed to diffract light into a ${{600}} \times {{600}}\;{\rm{\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}}$ square of uniform intensity.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Fabrication. (a) Microfabrication process-flow: i, cleaning in hot Piranha ( ${{\rm{H}}_2}{{\rm{SO}}_4}:{{\rm{H}}_2}{{\rm{O}}_2}$ , 1:1) and subsequently in concentrated hydrofluoric acid followed by high-angle IBE polishing [34]; ii, sputtering of silicon hardmask; iii, spin-coating of HSQ negative resist (FOX-16, thickness ${\sim}500\;{\rm{nm}}$ ); iv, electron beam lithography (Raith EBPG ${{5000 +}}$ ), and development in TMAH; v, chlorine-based reactive ion etching (RIE) patterning of the Si layer (STS Multiplex ICP); vi, highly directional ${{\rm{O}}_2}$ plasma etch of diamond substrate (STS Multiplex ICP, 400 W ICP power, 200 W bias power, 30 sccm ${{\rm{O}}_2}$ , 15 m Torr); vii, stripping of the hardmask using a wet silicon isotropic etch ( ${\rm HF}:{{\rm{HNO}}_3}:{{\rm{CH}}_3}{\rm{COOH}}$ ). (b) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) recording of the diamond diffractive optical element surface after fabrication. (c) Atomic force microscope (AFM) recording of the DOEs surface revealing a feature depth of 83 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Optical characterization. (a) Experimental setup: a 532 nm CW laser, a 10 nm bandpass filter centered at 532 nm, a spatial filter designed to clean and expand the beam to the required width, the DOE itself, a 3.5x 0.10 NA microscope objective imaging the object plane onto a CMOS array. (b) Beam profile created by a square beam shaper DOE as imaged by the CMOS detector. Inset, we show the flexibility of our design and fabrication method by making a beam shaper forming the logo of our institution (EPFL). (c) Simulated beam profile. (d) Vertically integrated intensity of the beam profile.

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