Abstract

The Fresnel-Fizeau effect of transverse drag, in which the trajectory of a light beam changes due to the transverse motion of the optical medium, is usually extremely small and hard to detect. We observe transverse drag in a moving hot-vapor cell, utilizing slow light due to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The drag effect is enhanced by a factor $3.6 \times {10^5}$, corresponding to the ratio between the light speed in vacuum and the group velocity under EIT conditions. We study the contribution of the thermal atomic motion, which is much faster than the mean medium velocity, and identify the regime where its effect on the transverse drag is negligible.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  2. R. S. Shankland, Am. J. Phys. 31, 47 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. A. Michelson and E. W. Morley, Am. J. Sci. 31, 377 (1886).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. M. Macek, J. R. Schneider, and R. M. Salamon, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2556 (1964).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  6. A. A. Svidzinsky, F. Li, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 123902 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. G. Klein, G. I. Opat, A. Cimmino, A. Zeilinger, W. Treimer, and R. Gähler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1551 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. V. Jones, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 328, 337 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. V. Jones, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 345, 351 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. A. Player, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 345, 343 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  11. I. Carusotto, M. Artoni, G. C. La Rocca, and F. Bassani, Phys. Rev. A 68, 063819 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Davuluri and Y. V. Rostovtsev, Phys. Rev. A 86, 013806 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Artoni, G. C. La Rocca, I. Carusotto, and F. Bassani, Phys. Rev. B 65, 235422 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. Strekalov, A. B. Matsko, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023601 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Safari, I. De Leon, M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 013601 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. C. Kuan, C. Huang, W. S. Chan, S. Kosen, and S. Y. Lan, Nat. Commun. 7, 13030 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Franke-Arnold, G. Gibson, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, Science 333, 65 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. Wisniewski-Barker, G. Gibson, S. Franke-Arnold, Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 15, 083020 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. I. Novikova, R. L. Walsworth, and Y. Xiao, Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 333 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 397, 594 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  21. O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 941 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, R. Pugatch, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043830 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. Leach, A. J. Wright, J. B. Götte, J. M. Girkin, L. Allen, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 153902 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Padgett, J. Leach, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Götte, L. Allen, A. Wright, J. Girkin, and S. Barnett, Proc. SPIE 6664, 66640D (2007).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

A. A. Svidzinsky, F. Li, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 123902 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

P. C. Kuan, C. Huang, W. S. Chan, S. Kosen, and S. Y. Lan, Nat. Commun. 7, 13030 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Safari, I. De Leon, M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 013601 (2016).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 941 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Wisniewski-Barker, G. Gibson, S. Franke-Arnold, Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 15, 083020 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. Davuluri and Y. V. Rostovtsev, Phys. Rev. A 86, 013806 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Novikova, R. L. Walsworth, and Y. Xiao, Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 333 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. Franke-Arnold, G. Gibson, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, Science 333, 65 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. Leach, A. J. Wright, J. B. Götte, J. M. Girkin, L. Allen, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 153902 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, R. Pugatch, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043830 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Padgett, J. Leach, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Götte, L. Allen, A. Wright, J. Girkin, and S. Barnett, Proc. SPIE 6664, 66640D (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. Strekalov, A. B. Matsko, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023601 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

I. Carusotto, M. Artoni, G. C. La Rocca, and F. Bassani, Phys. Rev. A 68, 063819 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Artoni, G. C. La Rocca, I. Carusotto, and F. Bassani, Phys. Rev. B 65, 235422 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 397, 594 (1999).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

G. A. Sanders and S. Ezekiel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 674 (1988).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

A. G. Klein, G. I. Opat, A. Cimmino, A. Zeilinger, W. Treimer, and R. Gähler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1551 (1981).
[Crossref]

1975 (2)

M. A. Player, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 345, 343 (1975).
[Crossref]

R. V. Jones, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 345, 351 (1975).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

R. V. Jones, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 328, 337 (1972).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

W. M. Macek, J. R. Schneider, and R. M. Salamon, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2556 (1964).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

R. S. Shankland, Am. J. Phys. 31, 47 (1963).
[Crossref]

1886 (1)

A. A. Michelson and E. W. Morley, Am. J. Sci. 31, 377 (1886).
[Crossref]

1860 (1)

M. H. Fizeau, London, Edinburgh, Dublin Philos. Mag. J. Sci. 19, 245 (1860).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

J. Leach, A. J. Wright, J. B. Götte, J. M. Girkin, L. Allen, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 153902 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Padgett, J. Leach, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Götte, L. Allen, A. Wright, J. Girkin, and S. Barnett, Proc. SPIE 6664, 66640D (2007).
[Crossref]

Artoni, M.

I. Carusotto, M. Artoni, G. C. La Rocca, and F. Bassani, Phys. Rev. A 68, 063819 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Artoni, G. C. La Rocca, I. Carusotto, and F. Bassani, Phys. Rev. B 65, 235422 (2002).
[Crossref]

Barnett, S.

M. Padgett, J. Leach, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Götte, L. Allen, A. Wright, J. Girkin, and S. Barnett, Proc. SPIE 6664, 66640D (2007).
[Crossref]

Barnett, S. M.

J. Leach, A. J. Wright, J. B. Götte, J. M. Girkin, L. Allen, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 153902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bassani, F.

I. Carusotto, M. Artoni, G. C. La Rocca, and F. Bassani, Phys. Rev. A 68, 063819 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Artoni, G. C. La Rocca, I. Carusotto, and F. Bassani, Phys. Rev. B 65, 235422 (2002).
[Crossref]

Behroozi, C. H.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 397, 594 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ben-Kish, A.

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

A. Safari, I. De Leon, M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 013601 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Wisniewski-Barker, G. Gibson, S. Franke-Arnold, Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 15, 083020 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Franke-Arnold, G. Gibson, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, Science 333, 65 (2011).
[Crossref]

Carusotto, I.

I. Carusotto, M. Artoni, G. C. La Rocca, and F. Bassani, Phys. Rev. A 68, 063819 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Artoni, G. C. La Rocca, I. Carusotto, and F. Bassani, Phys. Rev. B 65, 235422 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chan, W. S.

P. C. Kuan, C. Huang, W. S. Chan, S. Kosen, and S. Y. Lan, Nat. Commun. 7, 13030 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cimmino, A.

A. G. Klein, G. I. Opat, A. Cimmino, A. Zeilinger, W. Treimer, and R. Gähler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1551 (1981).
[Crossref]

Davidson, N.

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 941 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, R. Pugatch, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043830 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
[Crossref]

Davuluri, S.

S. Davuluri and Y. V. Rostovtsev, Phys. Rev. A 86, 013806 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Leon, I.

A. Safari, I. De Leon, M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 013601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dutton, Z.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 397, 594 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ezekiel, S.

G. A. Sanders and S. Ezekiel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 674 (1988).
[Crossref]

Firstenberg, O.

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 941 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, R. Pugatch, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043830 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fizeau, M. H.

M. H. Fizeau, London, Edinburgh, Dublin Philos. Mag. J. Sci. 19, 245 (1860).
[Crossref]

Franke-Arnold, S.

E. Wisniewski-Barker, G. Gibson, S. Franke-Arnold, Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 15, 083020 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Franke-Arnold, G. Gibson, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, Science 333, 65 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Leach, A. J. Wright, J. B. Götte, J. M. Girkin, L. Allen, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 153902 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Padgett, J. Leach, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Götte, L. Allen, A. Wright, J. Girkin, and S. Barnett, Proc. SPIE 6664, 66640D (2007).
[Crossref]

Fredkin, D. R.

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, R. Pugatch, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043830 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gähler, R.

A. G. Klein, G. I. Opat, A. Cimmino, A. Zeilinger, W. Treimer, and R. Gähler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1551 (1981).
[Crossref]

Gibson, G.

E. Wisniewski-Barker, G. Gibson, S. Franke-Arnold, Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 15, 083020 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Franke-Arnold, G. Gibson, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, Science 333, 65 (2011).
[Crossref]

Girkin, J.

M. Padgett, J. Leach, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Götte, L. Allen, A. Wright, J. Girkin, and S. Barnett, Proc. SPIE 6664, 66640D (2007).
[Crossref]

Girkin, J. M.

J. Leach, A. J. Wright, J. B. Götte, J. M. Girkin, L. Allen, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 153902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Götte, J.

M. Padgett, J. Leach, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Götte, L. Allen, A. Wright, J. Girkin, and S. Barnett, Proc. SPIE 6664, 66640D (2007).
[Crossref]

Götte, J. B.

J. Leach, A. J. Wright, J. B. Götte, J. M. Girkin, L. Allen, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 153902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Harris, S. E.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 397, 594 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hau, L. V.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 397, 594 (1999).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.

P. C. Kuan, C. Huang, W. S. Chan, S. Kosen, and S. Y. Lan, Nat. Commun. 7, 13030 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jones, R. V.

R. V. Jones, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 345, 351 (1975).
[Crossref]

R. V. Jones, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 328, 337 (1972).
[Crossref]

Klein, A. G.

A. G. Klein, G. I. Opat, A. Cimmino, A. Zeilinger, W. Treimer, and R. Gähler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1551 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kosen, S.

P. C. Kuan, C. Huang, W. S. Chan, S. Kosen, and S. Y. Lan, Nat. Commun. 7, 13030 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kuan, P. C.

P. C. Kuan, C. Huang, W. S. Chan, S. Kosen, and S. Y. Lan, Nat. Commun. 7, 13030 (2016).
[Crossref]

La Rocca, G. C.

I. Carusotto, M. Artoni, G. C. La Rocca, and F. Bassani, Phys. Rev. A 68, 063819 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Artoni, G. C. La Rocca, I. Carusotto, and F. Bassani, Phys. Rev. B 65, 235422 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lan, S. Y.

P. C. Kuan, C. Huang, W. S. Chan, S. Kosen, and S. Y. Lan, Nat. Commun. 7, 13030 (2016).
[Crossref]

Leach, J.

J. Leach, A. J. Wright, J. B. Götte, J. M. Girkin, L. Allen, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 153902 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Padgett, J. Leach, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Götte, L. Allen, A. Wright, J. Girkin, and S. Barnett, Proc. SPIE 6664, 66640D (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

A. A. Svidzinsky, F. Li, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 123902 (2017).
[Crossref]

Macek, W. M.

W. M. Macek, J. R. Schneider, and R. M. Salamon, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2556 (1964).
[Crossref]

Magaña-Loaiza, O. S.

A. Safari, I. De Leon, M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 013601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Maleki, L.

D. Strekalov, A. B. Matsko, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023601 (2004).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

D. Strekalov, A. B. Matsko, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023601 (2004).
[Crossref]

Michelson, A. A.

A. A. Michelson and E. W. Morley, Am. J. Sci. 31, 377 (1886).
[Crossref]

Mirhosseini, M.

A. Safari, I. De Leon, M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 013601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Morley, E. W.

A. A. Michelson and E. W. Morley, Am. J. Sci. 31, 377 (1886).
[Crossref]

Novikova, I.

I. Novikova, R. L. Walsworth, and Y. Xiao, Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opat, G. I.

A. G. Klein, G. I. Opat, A. Cimmino, A. Zeilinger, W. Treimer, and R. Gähler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1551 (1981).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M.

M. Padgett, J. Leach, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Götte, L. Allen, A. Wright, J. Girkin, and S. Barnett, Proc. SPIE 6664, 66640D (2007).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M. J.

E. Wisniewski-Barker, G. Gibson, S. Franke-Arnold, Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 15, 083020 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Franke-Arnold, G. Gibson, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, Science 333, 65 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Leach, A. J. Wright, J. B. Götte, J. M. Girkin, L. Allen, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 153902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Player, M. A.

M. A. Player, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 345, 343 (1975).
[Crossref]

Pugatch, R.

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, R. Pugatch, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043830 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ron, A.

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 941 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, R. Pugatch, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043830 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

S. Davuluri and Y. V. Rostovtsev, Phys. Rev. A 86, 013806 (2012).
[Crossref]

Safari, A.

A. Safari, I. De Leon, M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 013601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Salamon, R. M.

W. M. Macek, J. R. Schneider, and R. M. Salamon, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2556 (1964).
[Crossref]

Sanders, G. A.

G. A. Sanders and S. Ezekiel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 674 (1988).
[Crossref]

Schneider, J. R.

W. M. Macek, J. R. Schneider, and R. M. Salamon, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2556 (1964).
[Crossref]

Shankland, R. S.

R. S. Shankland, Am. J. Phys. 31, 47 (1963).
[Crossref]

Shi, Z.

E. Wisniewski-Barker, G. Gibson, S. Franke-Arnold, Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 15, 083020 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shuker, M.

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 941 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, R. Pugatch, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 77, 043830 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ben-Kish, D. R. Fredkin, N. Davidson, and A. Ron, Phys. Rev. A 76, 013818 (2007).
[Crossref]

Strekalov, D.

D. Strekalov, A. B. Matsko, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023601 (2004).
[Crossref]

Svidzinsky, A. A.

A. A. Svidzinsky, F. Li, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 123902 (2017).
[Crossref]

Treimer, W.

A. G. Klein, G. I. Opat, A. Cimmino, A. Zeilinger, W. Treimer, and R. Gähler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1551 (1981).
[Crossref]

Walsworth, R. L.

I. Novikova, R. L. Walsworth, and Y. Xiao, Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wisniewski-Barker, E.

E. Wisniewski-Barker, G. Gibson, S. Franke-Arnold, Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 15, 083020 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wright, A.

M. Padgett, J. Leach, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Götte, L. Allen, A. Wright, J. Girkin, and S. Barnett, Proc. SPIE 6664, 66640D (2007).
[Crossref]

Wright, A. J.

J. Leach, A. J. Wright, J. B. Götte, J. M. Girkin, L. Allen, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 153902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y.

I. Novikova, R. L. Walsworth, and Y. Xiao, Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

D. Strekalov, A. B. Matsko, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023601 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zeilinger, A.

A. G. Klein, G. I. Opat, A. Cimmino, A. Zeilinger, W. Treimer, and R. Gähler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1551 (1981).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

A. A. Svidzinsky, F. Li, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 123902 (2017).
[Crossref]

. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

G. A. Sanders and S. Ezekiel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 674 (1988).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

R. S. Shankland, Am. J. Phys. 31, 47 (1963).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Sci. (1)

A. A. Michelson and E. W. Morley, Am. J. Sci. 31, 377 (1886).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Light is dragged transversely when traversing a moving medium. (b) Modulated narrowband laser forms the probe and control fields with orthogonal polarization. An SLM controls the probe size, and both beams are sent to a motorized cell, which moves transversely back and forth. After the cell, a polarizer filters the control, and the probe is measured spatially and temporally. (c) Atomic transitions used in the experiment.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Drag and delay of slow light in a medium moving transversely at $v = 200\,\,{\rm mm/s}$ . We compare the transmission on EIT resonance (red) to that off the EIT resonance (blue). (a) Beam profiles, obtained by vertical integration over the recorded images. The magnifiers display a small asymmetry between the right side of the beam (facing the direction of motion) and the left side, with the drag more prominent on the former. This is caused by the beam expansion due to atomic diffusion. (b) Temporal pulse shapes.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Transverse drag versus medium’s velocity for two probe sizes. The drag scales linearly with velocity in both cases. (a) For the wider probe ( ${w_{\rm{p}}} = 1.4\,\,{\rm mm}$ ), the measured drag (blue points) agrees with that expected from the measured delay (red points) within 20%. (b) For the narrower probe ( ${w_{\rm{p}}} = 0.42\,\,{\rm mm}$ ), the drag is substantially reduced, while the delay stays large. The lines are derived from a numerical model (blue line in Fig. 4), with the average delay being the only fit parameter. The data points are the means of 50 measurements, and the error bars are their standard deviations.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Deviation from Eq. (2) in terms of the drag coefficient $\beta = \Delta x/\tau v$ . The data are obtained from measurements as in Fig. 3. The lines are models, using $D = 110\;{\rm{m}}{{\rm{m}}^{{2}}}{\rm{/s}}$ , angular deviation $\theta \; = 3 \cdot {10^{- 5}}{\rm{\;rad}}$ , optical depth ${\rm{OD}} = 0.96$ , and linewidth $2({{\gamma _0} + {{\rm{\Omega}}^2}/{\rm{\Gamma}}}) = 600\,\,{\rm Hz}$ . The analytical model (green) is given by Eq. (7). The numerical model (blue) assumes slightly diverging probe with a radius of curvature of ${R_c} = \;600\;{\rm{mm}}$ .
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Transverse drag when the probe and control beams have the same size (a)  ${w_{\rm{p}}} = {w_{\rm{c}}} = 1\;{\rm{mm\;and}}$ (b)  ${w_{\rm{p}}} = {w_{\rm{c}}} = 0.17\;{\rm{mm}}$ . The scattering of the data and their deviations from linearity are reduced compared to measurements with ${w_{\rm{p}}} \lt {w_{\rm{c}}}$ (compare to Fig. 3), due to the robustness of a common optical path as used here. This robustness also leads, for a probe wide enough (a), to an agreement between ${{\Delta}}x$ and $v\tau$ (i.e., $\beta = 1$ ).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Numerical simulation of drag and delay for ${w_{\rm{c}}} = {w_{\rm{p}}}$ (finite control) and ${w_{\rm{c}}} \gg {w_{\rm{p}}}$ (uniform control), with $D = 0$ . The conditions correspond to the experiment with ${w_{\rm{p}}} = 1\,\,{\rm mm}$ . The saturation of the drag with increasing velocity is more pronounced for a finite control.

Equations (8)

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Δ x = L v c ( c v g r v p h c ) ,
Δ x L v v g r = τ v ,
Δ x = ( π L λ ) R e [ χ ] k x a n d τ = ( π L λ ) R e [ χ ] δ ,
χ ( k x , δ ) = i λ π O D 2 L [ 1 Ω 2 / Γ γ ( k x ) i δ + i δ D ( k x ) ] ,
π L λ χ δ = τ + i η τ ,
τ = O D 2 Ω 2 Γ γ 2 ( δ δ D ) 2 [ γ 2 + ( δ δ D ) 2 ] 2 ; η = 2 γ ( δ δ D ) γ 2 ( δ δ D ) 2 .
π L λ χ k x = Δ x + i τ [ v η + 2 D ( k x + 2 π λ θ ) ] .
β Δ x τ v 1 2 1 + w p 2 ( γ 0 + Ω 2 / Γ ) / D .

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