Abstract

An ultra-compact low-loss 1×4 optical power splitter with a splitting ratio of 1∶2∶4∶8 is proposed and demonstrated on a 220-nm-thick silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform at the C band. The splitter is based on two stages of a cascaded 1×3 multimode interference (MMI) coupler and a 4×4 MMI coupler. The footprint of the device is 124.0μm×6.4μm, which is more compact than the traditional scheme of four-stage cascaded 1×2 MMI couplers. Phase shifters based on taper waveguides are incorporated in the device as the connection of two MMI couplers. The fabricated device exhibits a 3 dB power difference with a deviation of less than 0.88 dB from 1530 nm to 1570 nm. The average power difference is 3.14 dB at the center of the C band with an insertion loss of 1.84 dB.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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A. Maese-Novo, R. Halir, S. Romero-García, D. Pérez-Galacho, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and P. Cheben, Opt. Express 21, 7033 (2013).
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He, Z.

H. Xie, Y. Liu, W. Sun, Y. Wang, K. Xu, J. Du, Z. He, and Q. Song, IEEE Photon. J. 10, 6601607 (2018).
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Y. Tian, J. Qiu, Z. Huang, Y. Qiao, Z. Dong, and J. Wu, Opt. Express 26, 2453 (2018).
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Lu, L.

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Mak, J. C. C.

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R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and Í. Molina-Fernández, Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 1039 (2016).
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A. Maese-Novo, R. Halir, S. Romero-García, D. Pérez-Galacho, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and P. Cheben, Opt. Express 21, 7033 (2013).
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N. S. Lagali, M. R. Paiam, and R. I. MacDonald, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 665 (1999).
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Patel, D.

Pérez-Galacho, D.

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Piggott, A. Y.

A. Y. Piggott, J. Petykiewicz, L. Su, and J. Vuckovic, Opt. Lett. 7, 1786 (2017).
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Plant, D. V.

Poon, J. K. S.

Qiao, Y.

Y. Tian, J. Qiu, Z. Huang, Y. Qiao, Z. Dong, and J. Wu, Opt. Express 26, 2453 (2018).
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Y. Tian, J. Qiu, M. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Qiao, Z. Dong, and J. Wu, IEEE Photon. J. 10, 6601008 (2018).
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Qiu, J.

Y. Tian, J. Qiu, M. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Qiao, Z. Dong, and J. Wu, IEEE Photon. J. 10, 6601008 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, J. Qiu, Z. Huang, Y. Qiao, Z. Dong, and J. Wu, Opt. Express 26, 2453 (2018).
[Crossref]

Raghuwanshi, S. K.

D. Chack, V. Kumar, S. K. Raghuwanshi, and D. P. Singh, Opt. Commun. 382, 324 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rahman, B. M. A.

W. Jiang and B. M. A. Rahman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 54, 6300509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ren, F.

F. Ren, W. Chen, T. Zhangsun, Y. Zhang, X. Fan, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. J 10, 7104912 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ren, X.

Romero-García, S.

Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. D.

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and Í. Molina-Fernández, Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 1039 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and Í. Molina-Fernández, Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 1039 (2016).
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Y. Xiong, D. X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shi, Z.

Sideris, C.

Singh, D. P.

D. Chack, V. Kumar, S. K. Raghuwanshi, and D. P. Singh, Opt. Commun. 382, 324 (2017).
[Crossref]

Skold, M.

Song, Q.

H. Xie, Y. Liu, W. Sun, Y. Wang, K. Xu, J. Du, Z. He, and Q. Song, IEEE Photon. J. 10, 6601607 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Ke, L. Liu, X. Wen, W. Sun, N. Zhang, N. Yi, S. Sun, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, Opt. Lett. 42, 855 (2017).
[Crossref]

Su, L.

A. Y. Piggott, J. Petykiewicz, L. Su, and J. Vuckovic, Opt. Lett. 7, 1786 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, S.

Sun, W.

H. Xie, Y. Liu, W. Sun, Y. Wang, K. Xu, J. Du, Z. He, and Q. Song, IEEE Photon. J. 10, 6601607 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Ke, L. Liu, X. Wen, W. Sun, N. Zhang, N. Yi, S. Sun, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, Opt. Lett. 42, 855 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

Sunnerud, H.

Tan, N. H.

T. A. Tuan, T. D. Cao, N. H. Tan, and V. Y. Van, Opt. Quantum Electron. 50, 426 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.

Y. Tian, J. Qiu, M. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Qiao, Z. Dong, and J. Wu, IEEE Photon. J. 10, 6601008 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, J. Qiu, Z. Huang, Y. Qiao, Z. Dong, and J. Wu, Opt. Express 26, 2453 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tuan, T. A.

T. A. Tuan, T. D. Cao, N. H. Tan, and V. Y. Van, Opt. Quantum Electron. 50, 426 (2018).
[Crossref]

Van, V. Y.

T. A. Tuan, T. D. Cao, N. H. Tan, and V. Y. Van, Opt. Quantum Electron. 50, 426 (2018).
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J.

A. Y. Piggott, J. Petykiewicz, L. Su, and J. Vuckovic, Opt. Lett. 7, 1786 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Wang, J.

R. Cheng, D. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Wang, F. Gao, X. Sun, Z. Shi, Z. Cui, and C. Chen, Opt. Express 27, 12883 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Ren, W. Chen, T. Zhangsun, Y. Zhang, X. Fan, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. J 10, 7104912 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and Í. Molina-Fernández, Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 1039 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

H. Xie, Y. Liu, W. Sun, Y. Wang, K. Xu, J. Du, Z. He, and Q. Song, IEEE Photon. J. 10, 6601607 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wangüemert-Pérez, G.

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and Í. Molina-Fernández, Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 1039 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Wei, S.

Wen, X.

Westlund, M.

Wu, J.

Xiao, S.

Xie, H.

H. Xie, Y. Liu, W. Sun, Y. Wang, K. Xu, J. Du, Z. He, and Q. Song, IEEE Photon. J. 10, 6601607 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Y.

Y. Xiong, D. X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, D. X.

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and Í. Molina-Fernández, Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 1039 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiong, D. X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, K.

H. Xie, Y. Liu, W. Sun, Y. Wang, K. Xu, J. Du, Z. He, and Q. Song, IEEE Photon. J. 10, 6601607 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yao, C.

Ye, W. N.

Y. Xiong, D. X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yi, N.

Yin, Z.

Yu, M.

Y. Tian, J. Qiu, M. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Qiao, Z. Dong, and J. Wu, IEEE Photon. J. 10, 6601008 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zavargo-Peche, L.

Zhang, D.

Zhang, M.

Zhang, N.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

F. Ren, W. Chen, T. Zhangsun, Y. Zhang, X. Fan, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. J 10, 7104912 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhangsun, T.

F. Ren, W. Chen, T. Zhangsun, Y. Zhang, X. Fan, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. J 10, 7104912 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

Zhou, L.

Zou, Z.

Electron. Lett. (1)

Q. Lai, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, Electron. Lett. 32, 1576 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

W. Jiang and B. M. A. Rahman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 54, 6300509 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J (1)

F. Ren, W. Chen, T. Zhangsun, Y. Zhang, X. Fan, and J. Wang, IEEE Photon. J 10, 7104912 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (3)

Y. Xiong, D. X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, J. Qiu, M. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Qiao, Z. Dong, and J. Wu, IEEE Photon. J. 10, 6601008 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xie, Y. Liu, W. Sun, Y. Wang, K. Xu, J. Du, Z. He, and Q. Song, IEEE Photon. J. 10, 6601607 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. S. Lagali, M. R. Paiam, and R. I. MacDonald, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 665 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and Í. Molina-Fernández, Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 1039 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Chack, V. Kumar, S. K. Raghuwanshi, and D. P. Singh, Opt. Commun. 382, 324 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. C. Dung and H. V. Chung, Opt. Quantum Electron. 47, 413 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. A. Tuan, T. D. Cao, N. H. Tan, and V. Y. Van, Opt. Quantum Electron. 50, 426 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic drawing of the proposed power splitter with two-stage cascaded MMI couplers connected by phase shifters based on taper waveguides.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Simulated (a) normalized transmission spectra and (b) insertion loss of the optimized 1 × 3 MMI coupler. The inset is the electric field profile of the coupler.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Relationship between the relative optical power of four output ports and phase change introduced by the second taper waveguide as the phase shifter.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Simulated (a) normalized transmission spectra and (b) insertion loss of the optimized 1 × 4 power splitter. The inset is the electric field profile of the splitter.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Relationship between the transmittance of four channels and (a) the length of the second phase-shifting taper waveguide, (b) width of the three joint straight single mode waveguides.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) view of the joint structure of phase shifters and microscope view of the fabricated device.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Measured transmittance and (b) calculated normalized splitting ratio of the proposed device.

Equations (1)

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( Out ) = ( T 44 ) ( T p s ) ( T 13 ) ( In ) = ( T 44 ) ( T p s ) ( 0.598 e i ϕ 1 0.339 e i ϕ 2 0.047 e i ϕ 3 ) = ( T 44 ) ( 0.598 e i Φ 1 0.339 e i Φ 2 0.047 e i Φ 3 ) .