Abstract

Biological compound-eye systems have unique advantages in three-dimensional (3D) positioning based on light energy distribution. A curved compound eye was designed and manufactured to imitate a biological compound eye. To overcome the nonuniform off-axis response and enlarge the aperture of the eyelet, a novel dome light cone was designed. The dome light cone was designed as a conical structure, which consisted of a lot of fiber wires with a diameter of 6 μm. Additionally, based on the proposed biological compound-eye systems, an algorithm was proposed to obtain the 3D position of the object by analyzing the light location and intensity distribution. The effect of the illumination intensity, the position of the target’s center, and the non-repeatability were evaluated. The relative standard uncertainty in the 3D position was estimated to be 8.6%. Low uncertainty verified the validity of the 3D localization algorithm.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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Fang, F.

Gebhardt, A.

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Y. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, Nature 497, 95 (2013).
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K. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. Lee, Science 312, 557 (2006).
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W. Zhu, S. Yang, B. Ju, J. Jiang, and A. Sun, Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 075003 (2015).
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Ju, H.

Jung, I.

Y. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, Nature 497, 95 (2013).
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Kim, J.

K. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. Lee, Science 312, 557 (2006).
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C. Choi, M. Choi, S. Liu, and M. Kim, Nat. Commun. 8, 1664 (2017).
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Kim, R. H.

Y. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, Nature 497, 95 (2013).
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Koshi, H.

K. Hamanaka and H. Koshi, Opt. Rev. 3, 264 (1996).
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Lee, L.

K. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. Lee, Science 312, 557 (2006).
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Ma, M.

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Y. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, Nature 497, 95 (2013).
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S. Palanisamy, S. Chen, and R. Sarawathi, Sens. Actuators, A 179, 242 (2012).
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J. Duparré and P. Schreiber, Opt. Express 13, 889 (2005).
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Wang, K.

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Y. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, Nature 497, 95 (2013).
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Xie, Y.

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Yang, S.

W. Zhu, S. Yang, B. Ju, J. Jiang, and A. Sun, Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 075003 (2015).
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Yang, T.

Yi, A.

Yi, A. Y.

Yitzhaky, Y.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

J. Zhu, W. Hou, X. Zhang, and G. Jin, J. Opt. 17, 015605 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Hu, Opt. Express 16, 7323 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, W. Hou, X. Zhang, and G. Jin, J. Opt. 17, 015605 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Yang, J. Zhu, and G. Jin, Opt. Express 22, 3362 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, W.

W. Zhu, S. Yang, B. Ju, J. Jiang, and A. Sun, Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 075003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bull. Math. Biol. (1)

H. Crenshaw, Bull. Math. Biol. 55(1), 197 (1993).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. (1)

S. D. Blostein and H. S. Richardson, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 30, 197 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

J. Zhu, W. Hou, X. Zhang, and G. Jin, J. Opt. 17, 015605 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

W. Zhu, S. Yang, B. Ju, J. Jiang, and A. Sun, Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 075003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

C. Choi, M. Choi, S. Liu, and M. Kim, Nat. Commun. 8, 1664 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Y. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, Nature 497, 95 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Rev. (1)

K. Hamanaka and H. Koshi, Opt. Rev. 3, 264 (1996).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Duparré and P. Schreiber, Proc. SPIE 5249, 408 (2004).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

K. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. Lee, Science 312, 557 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators, A (1)

S. Palanisamy, S. Chen, and R. Sarawathi, Sens. Actuators, A 179, 242 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Curved bionic compound-eye lens.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Fabricated parts and the completed system. (a) Front side of the curved bionic compound-eye lens. (b) and (c) assembled compound eye. (d) MTF curve.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Average gradient of images.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Sketch of the coordinate.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Grid meshing of the compound eye.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Images at different target distances. (a)–(c) Images and (d)–(f) grayscale map of the target distance at 22, 212, and 452 mm.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Relationship between the pixel and displacement.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Measurement and real 3D trajectory of the object.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Rcs=Rso+Hef.
Hcs=π×Rcs/2n.
Hcs=2×f×tan(αe/2).
G=1MNi=1Mj=1NFx(i,j)2+Fy(i,j)2,
α=6142d.
d=(xxc)2+(yyc)2,
β={cos1xxc(xxc)2+(yyc)2(y>yc)2πcos1xxc(xxc)2+(yyc)2(y<yc).
p=AeAij/A0,
uL=(LpupL)2+urep2+ucom_eye2,