Abstract

We report a new coherent imaging technique, termed ptychographic structured modulation (PSM), for quantitative super-resolution microscopy. In this technique, we place a thin diffuser (i.e., a scattering lens) in between the sample and the objective lens to modulate the complex light waves from the object. The otherwise inaccessible high-resolution object information can thus be encoded into the captured images. We then employ a ptychographic phase retrieval process to jointly recover the exit wavefront of the complex object and the unknown diffuser profile. Unlike the illumination-based super-resolution approach, the recovered image of our approach depends upon how the complex wavefront exits the sample—not enters it. Therefore, the sample thickness becomes irrelevant during reconstruction. After recovery, we can propagate the super-resolution complex wavefront to any position along the optical axis. We validate our approach using a resolution target, a quantitative phase target, a two-layer sample, and a thick polydimethylsiloxane sample. We demonstrate a 4.5-fold resolution gain over the diffraction limit. We also show that a four-fold resolution gain can be achieved with as few as 30 images. The reported approach may provide a quantitative super-resolution strategy for coherent light, x-ray, and electron imaging.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       The digital propagating process of the recovered wavefront.
» Visualization 2       Digitally propagated wavefront at different axial planes.

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