Abstract

We propose a simple compact interferometer using twisted light to detect picometer displacement on a solid or liquid surface. The heart of the interferometer lies in producing a daisy petal pattern formed by interference between two oppositely charged twisted beams. The sample being probed is an active component of the interferometer. By analyzing the rotation of the petal pattern, caused by the relative displacement between the cylindrical lens (CL) and solid/liquid surface, we exhibit picometer resolution in displacement measurements. Remarkably, we explore the significance of a radial quantum number in the measurement of surface displacement and surface tilt angle. We also investigate the arbitrary surface deformation profile with similar precision by modifying the set-up. We perform simulations in realistic experimental settings and show that they are in excellent agreement with the predictions of analytic expressions. The proposed set-up can be further miniaturized by a small focal length CL and will open routes for tremendous applications in picometer-scale displacement measurement of a solid or liquid interface by various excitations.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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