Abstract

We report a technique to break the depth of field (DOF) limit in optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a finite energy Airy beam. The Airy beam is generated using a phase mask in a Fourier transform schematic and provides the DOF improvement due to its low diffraction. We compare Airy beam OCT with conventional Gaussian beam OCT using lateral resolution and sensitivity. Experimental data from the polystyrene beads in water as well as lemon tissue confirm the extension of DOF up to 10 mm in Airy beam OCT, while the DOF of Gaussian beam OCT is less than 3.0 mm. We also demonstrate that a modified Airy beam can be effectively used in OCT by adjusting the truncating factor of the Airy beam via changing the pattern scale of the phase mask. This result provides a selection method for the use of a finite energy Airy beam in OCT.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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2019 (1)

M. Zhang, L. Ma, and P. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 6801106 (2019).
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2018 (2)

2017 (3)

2014 (4)

2013 (1)

P. Li, L. An, G. Lan, M. Johnstone, D. Malchow, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 016012 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Z. Y. Ye, S. Liu, C. B. Lou, P. Zhang, Y. Hu, D. H. Song, J. L. Zhao, and Z. G. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 3230 (2011).
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L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. K. K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 054103 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Lin and P. Yu, Opt. Express 15, 16322 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref]

Aguirre, A. D.

An, L.

P. Li, L. An, G. Lan, M. Johnstone, D. Malchow, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 016012 (2013).
[Crossref]

Artal, P.

Bachmann, A. H.

Bandres, M. A.

Bo, E.

Boppart, S.

Bouma, B. E.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Broky, J.

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Carney, P.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Chen, S.

Chen, Z. G.

Christodoulides, D. N.

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chu, J.

Cizmar, T.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Llado, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Cizmar, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Coll-Llado, C.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Llado, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Cizmar, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Curatolo, A.

Cwiklinski, L.

Dalgarno, H. I. C.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Llado, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Cizmar, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Denk, W.

Dholakia, K.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Llado, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Cizmar, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dogariu, A.

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ferrier, D. E. K.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Llado, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Cizmar, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

A. D. Aguirre, J. Sawinski, S.-W. Huang, C. Zhou, W. Denk, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 18, 4222 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gardecki, J. A.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ge, X.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Grulkowski, I.

Gunn-Moore, F. J.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Llado, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Cizmar, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.

Huang, S.-W.

Johnstone, M.

P. Li, L. An, G. Lan, M. Johnstone, D. Malchow, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 016012 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karnowski, K.

Lan, G.

P. Li, L. An, G. Lan, M. Johnstone, D. Malchow, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 016012 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lasser, T.

Lee, K.-S.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, J.

Li, P.

P. Li, L. An, G. Lan, M. Johnstone, D. Malchow, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 016012 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

Liu, L.

E. Bo, Y. Luo, S. Chen, X. Liu, N. Wang, X. Ge, X. Wang, S. Chen, S. Chen, J. Li, and L. Liu, Optica 4, 701 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

Lorenser, D.

Lou, C. B.

Luo, Y.

Ma, J.

Ma, L.

Malchow, D.

P. Li, L. An, G. Lan, M. Johnstone, D. Malchow, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 016012 (2013).
[Crossref]

Manzanera, S.

Miceli, J. J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref]

Nadkarni, S. K.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nylk, J.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Llado, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Cizmar, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ren, Z. J.

Rolland, J. P.

Sampson, D. D.

Sawinski, J.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y. L.

Singe, C. C.

Siviloglou, G. A.

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sobczuk, F.

Song, D. H.

South, F.

Steinmann, L.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tearney, G. J.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Toussaint, J. D.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vettenburg, T.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Llado, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Cizmar, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Villiger, M.

Wang, H.

Wang, N.

Wang, R. K.

P. Li, L. An, G. Lan, M. Johnstone, D. Malchow, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 016012 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, R. K. K.

R. K. K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 054103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wu, J. M.

Wu, Q.

Xu, J. J.

Xu, Y.

Yagi, Y.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

Ye, Z. Y.

Yu, P.

Yu, Q.

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, L. Ma, and P. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 6801106 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, L. Ma, and P. Yu, Opt. Lett. 42, 506 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, L. Ma, and P. Yu, Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 167 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, “Towards high speed high sensitivity optical coherence tomography for in vivo functional imaging,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Missouri, 2015).

Zhang, P.

Zhao, J. L.

Zhou, C.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. K. K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 054103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Zhang, L. Ma, and P. Yu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 6801106 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

P. Li, L. An, G. Lan, M. Johnstone, D. Malchow, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 016012 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Med. (1)

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nat. Med. 17, 1010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Methods (1)

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Llado, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Cizmar, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Optica (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. Zhang, “Towards high speed high sensitivity optical coherence tomography for in vivo functional imaging,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Missouri, 2015).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup. SLED, superluminescent light emission diode; HW, half-wave plate; PBS, polarization beam splitter; PM, phase mask; L1-L7, lenses; FC1-FC3, fiber connectors; PC1-PC2, polarization controllers.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Phase masks #1 (a) and #2 (b). The sizes of these phase masks are both 14×14mm2. The red circle marks the illuminated area of the sample arm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measured two-dimensional optical intensity distribution for (a) focused Gaussian, (b) Airy beam #1, and (c) Airy beam #2 at the focal plane. (d)–(f) Measured intensity distributions at 1.5 mm away from the focal plane, respectively. (g), (h) Intensity in the sagittal plane of Airy beams #1 and #2, respectively. Images (g) and (h) are of 10 mm width and 0.4 mm height. The white dashed line marks the measured FWHM. The color bar index represents a linear intensity.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. OCT images of the same particles under different displayed dynamic ranges. The bar represents 50 μm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. OCT images of 6 μm polystyrene beads for different beams at the focal plane and at 1.5 mm off the focal plane. The lateral resolution is determined using the ratio between the lateral and axial sizes, since the axial resolution is fixed. The bar represents 50 μm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a), (b), (d), (e) Measured beam shape and OCT images of 6 μm polystyrene beads using Gaussian and Airy beam #2. The dynamic range is [25dB, 0 dB]. (c), (f) OCT images of a lemon using Gaussian and Airy beam #2 when the sample moves away from the focal plane. The bar represents 100 μm. Dynamic range is [25dB, 5dB].

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ(μ,ν,s)=Airy(μs2+i2as)Airy(νs2+i2as)e[a(μ+ν)4as2],
κ=λf/(πda),
Sens=10log{ρTeP0κrκs[1+(πw02λz)2]1},

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