Abstract

Whispering-gallery mode (WGM) resonators combine small optical mode volumes with narrow resonance linewidths, making them exciting platforms for a variety of applications. Here we report a flying WGM microlaser, realized by optically trapping a dye-doped microparticle within a liquid-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) using a CW laser and then pumping it with a pulsed excitation laser whose wavelength matches the absorption band of the dye. The laser emits into core-guided modes that can be detected at the endfaces of the HC-PCF. Using radiation forces, the microlaser can be freely propelled along the HC-PCF over multi-centimeter distances—orders of magnitude farther than in previous experiments where tweezers and fiber traps were used. The system can be used to measure temperature with high spatial resolution, by exploiting the temperature-dependent frequency shift of the lasing modes, and may also permit precise delivery of light to remote locations.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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Metrology of laser-guided particles in air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

O. A. Schmidt, M. K. Garbos, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell
Opt. Lett. 37(1) 91-93 (2012)

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2017 (4)

E. Kim, M. D. Baaske, I. Schuldes, P. S. Wilsch, and F. Vollmer, Sci. Adv. 3, e1603044 (2017).
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H. Li, S. Liu, F. Peng, J. Yang, J. Li, and Y. Zhang, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 030305 (2017).
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P. Uebel, M. C. Günendi, M. H. Frosz, G. Ahmed, N. N. Edavalath, J.-M. Ménard, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 41, 1961 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

R. Zeltner, D. S. Bykov, S. Xie, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 231107 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

D. S. Bykov, O. A. Schmidt, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Photonics 9, 461 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 168 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

A. R. Ali, T. Ioppolo, V. Ötügen, M. Christensen, and D. MacFarlane, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Lett. 52, 276 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. Aas, A. Jonáš, and A. Kiraz, Opt. Commun. 290, 183 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Unterkofler, M. K. Garbos, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, J. Biophoton. 6, 743 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

O. A. Schmidt, M. K. Garbos, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 024502 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

I. M. White and X. Fan, Opt. Express 16, 1020 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Dholakia, P. Reece, and M. Gu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 42 (2008).
[Crossref]

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P. Zijlstra, K. L. van der Molen, and A. P. Mosk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161101 (2007).
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2006 (1)

J. Yang and L. J. Guo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W. M. S. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Sinha, A. K. Ray, S. Kundu, S. Sasikumar, and K. Dasgupta, Appl. Phys. B 75, 85 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1992 (1)

A. Ashkin, Biophys. J. 61, 569 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1964 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783 (1964).
[Crossref]

Aas, M.

M. Aas, A. Jonáš, and A. Kiraz, Opt. Commun. 290, 183 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, G.

Ali, A. R.

A. R. Ali, T. Ioppolo, V. Ötügen, M. Christensen, and D. MacFarlane, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Lett. 52, 276 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anand, V. R.

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, Biophys. J. 61, 569 (1992).
[Crossref]

Baaske, M. D.

E. Kim, M. D. Baaske, I. Schuldes, P. S. Wilsch, and F. Vollmer, Sci. Adv. 3, e1603044 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bernet, S.

Birks, T. A.

Byer, R. L.

Bykov, D. S.

R. Zeltner, D. S. Bykov, S. Xie, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 231107 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. S. Bykov, O. A. Schmidt, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Photonics 9, 461 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Christensen, M.

A. R. Ali, T. Ioppolo, V. Ötügen, M. Christensen, and D. MacFarlane, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Lett. 52, 276 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cižmár, T.

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Couny, F.

Dasgupta, K.

S. Sinha, A. K. Ray, S. Kundu, S. Sasikumar, and K. Dasgupta, Appl. Phys. B 75, 85 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

K. Dholakia, P. Reece, and M. Gu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 42 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dobravec, A.

Edavalath, N. N.

Euser, T. G.

R. Zeltner, D. S. Bykov, S. Xie, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 231107 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. S. Bykov, O. A. Schmidt, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Photonics 9, 461 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Unterkofler, M. K. Garbos, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, J. Biophoton. 6, 743 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. A. Schmidt, M. K. Garbos, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 024502 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. K. Garbos, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 19, 19643 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.

Farca, G.

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W. M. S. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101 (2004).
[Crossref]

Farr, L.

Foreman, M. R.

Frosz, M. H.

Garbos, M. K.

S. Unterkofler, M. K. Garbos, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, J. Biophoton. 6, 743 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. A. Schmidt, M. K. Garbos, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 024502 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. K. Garbos, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 19, 19643 (2011).
[Crossref]

Garcés-Chávez, V.

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Gu, M.

K. Dholakia, P. Reece, and M. Gu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 42 (2008).
[Crossref]

Günendi, M. C.

Guo, L. J.

J. Yang and L. J. Guo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143 (2006).
[Crossref]

Humar, M.

Ilchenko, V. S.

Ioppolo, T.

A. R. Ali, T. Ioppolo, V. Ötügen, M. Christensen, and D. MacFarlane, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Lett. 52, 276 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jonáš, A.

M. Aas, A. Jonáš, and A. Kiraz, Opt. Commun. 290, 183 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kailasnath, M.

Kim, E.

E. Kim, M. D. Baaske, I. Schuldes, P. S. Wilsch, and F. Vollmer, Sci. Adv. 3, e1603044 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kiraz, A.

M. Aas, A. Jonáš, and A. Kiraz, Opt. Commun. 290, 183 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

Kotov, N. A.

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W. M. S. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kundu, S.

S. Sinha, A. K. Ray, S. Kundu, S. Sasikumar, and K. Dasgupta, Appl. Phys. B 75, 85 (2002).
[Crossref]

Leuchs, G.

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, J.

H. Li, S. Liu, F. Peng, J. Yang, J. Li, and Y. Zhang, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 030305 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

H. Li, S. Liu, F. Peng, J. Yang, J. Li, and Y. Zhang, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 030305 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Liu, Z.

MacFarlane, D.

A. R. Ali, T. Ioppolo, V. Ötügen, M. Christensen, and D. MacFarlane, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Lett. 52, 276 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mangan, B. J.

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783 (1964).
[Crossref]

Marquardt, C.

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mason, M. W.

Mathew, S.

Matsko, A. B.

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ménard, J.-M.

Mosk, A. P.

P. Zijlstra, K. L. van der Molen, and A. P. Mosk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ötügen, V.

A. R. Ali, T. Ioppolo, V. Ötügen, M. Christensen, and D. MacFarlane, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Lett. 52, 276 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peng, F.

H. Li, S. Liu, F. Peng, J. Yang, J. Li, and Y. Zhang, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 030305 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pitzek, M.

Radhakrishnan, P.

Ray, A. K.

S. Sinha, A. K. Ray, S. Kundu, S. Sasikumar, and K. Dasgupta, Appl. Phys. B 75, 85 (2002).
[Crossref]

Reece, P.

K. Dholakia, P. Reece, and M. Gu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 42 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ritsch-Marte, M.

Roberts, P. J.

Rosenberger, A. T.

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W. M. S. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101 (2004).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. St. J.

P. Uebel, M. C. Günendi, M. H. Frosz, G. Ahmed, N. N. Edavalath, J.-M. Ménard, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 41, 1961 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Zeltner, D. S. Bykov, S. Xie, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 231107 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. S. Bykov, O. A. Schmidt, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Photonics 9, 461 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Unterkofler, M. K. Garbos, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, J. Biophoton. 6, 743 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. A. Schmidt, M. K. Garbos, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 024502 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. K. Garbos, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 19, 19643 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 236 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sabert, H.

Samuel, B.

Sasikumar, S.

S. Sinha, A. K. Ray, S. Kundu, S. Sasikumar, and K. Dasgupta, Appl. Phys. B 75, 85 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schiller, S.

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783 (1964).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, O. A.

D. S. Bykov, O. A. Schmidt, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Photonics 9, 461 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. A. Schmidt, M. K. Garbos, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 024502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schuldes, I.

E. Kim, M. D. Baaske, I. Schuldes, P. S. Wilsch, and F. Vollmer, Sci. Adv. 3, e1603044 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schwefel, H. G. L.

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shopova, S. I.

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W. M. S. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sinha, S.

S. Sinha, A. K. Ray, S. Kundu, S. Sasikumar, and K. Dasgupta, Appl. Phys. B 75, 85 (2002).
[Crossref]

Steiger, R.

Strekalov, D. V.

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Swaim, J. D.

Thalhammer, G.

Tomlinson, A.

Uebel, P.

Unterkofler, S.

S. Unterkofler, M. K. Garbos, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, J. Biophoton. 6, 743 (2013).
[Crossref]

van der Molen, K. L.

P. Zijlstra, K. L. van der Molen, and A. P. Mosk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vollmer, F.

E. Kim, M. D. Baaske, I. Schuldes, P. S. Wilsch, and F. Vollmer, Sci. Adv. 3, e1603044 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, Y.

White, I. M.

Wickramanayake, W. M. S.

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W. M. S. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101 (2004).
[Crossref]

Williams, D. P.

Wilsch, P. S.

E. Kim, M. D. Baaske, I. Schuldes, P. S. Wilsch, and F. Vollmer, Sci. Adv. 3, e1603044 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xie, S.

R. Zeltner, D. S. Bykov, S. Xie, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 231107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

H. Li, S. Liu, F. Peng, J. Yang, J. Li, and Y. Zhang, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 030305 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Yang and L. J. Guo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

Yuan, L.

Yun, S. H.

Zeltner, R.

R. Zeltner, D. S. Bykov, S. Xie, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 231107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zemánek, P.

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, E.

Zhao, L.

Zhao, X.

Zijlstra, P.

P. Zijlstra, K. L. van der Molen, and A. P. Mosk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Sinha, A. K. Ray, S. Kundu, S. Sasikumar, and K. Dasgupta, Appl. Phys. B 75, 85 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. Zeltner, D. S. Bykov, S. Xie, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 231107 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Zijlstra, K. L. van der Molen, and A. P. Mosk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161101 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174101 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W. M. S. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783 (1964).
[Crossref]

Biophys. J. (1)

A. Ashkin, Biophys. J. 61, 569 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

K. Dholakia, P. Reece, and M. Gu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 42 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Yang and L. J. Guo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Biophoton. (1)

S. Unterkofler, M. K. Garbos, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, J. Biophoton. 6, 743 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Lett. (1)

A. R. Ali, T. Ioppolo, V. Ötügen, M. Christensen, and D. MacFarlane, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Lett. 52, 276 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Li, S. Liu, F. Peng, J. Yang, J. Li, and Y. Zhang, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 030305 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. S. Bykov, O. A. Schmidt, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, Nat. Photonics 9, 461 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup. PD, photodiode; MMF, multimode fiber. (Left inset) Near-field image of the fiber modes at the HC-PCF endface at the trapping wavelength (1064 nm) superimposed on a scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of HC-PCF structure. (Right inset) Measured optical loss spectrum of the D2O-filled HC-PCF.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Measured emission spectra with increasing average pump power for a dye-doped polystyrene microparticle trapped in a HC-PCF. The dotted green curve shows the fluorescence spectrum of the particle. The inset shows the zoom-in of the lasing peaks and its Lorentzian fit (red-dashed curve). (b) Integrated spectrometer counts for each peak as a function of average pump power, showing a threshold of 8  μW.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Temporal evolution of the emission spectrum from the particle. (b) Normalized emission spectra at four different times under irradiation. The decrease in amplitude of the lasing peaks, accompanied by a spectral blue-shift, is a fingerprint of dye lasing.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Lasing spectra measured at different axial positions of the particle. (b) Individual video frames collected through the side of the HC-PCF, showing the lasing particle at different positions. The particle is visible due to scattered 1064 nm trapping light. The white arrow indicates the propagation direction of the trapping laser beam.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Lasing spectra of an optically trapped dye-doped melamine-resin particle at different temperatures, showing a blue-shift with increasing temperature. (b) Measured wavelength shift of the 610 nm lasing mode as a function of temperature, with linear fit (red). The resonance wavelength at each temperature was obtained by a Lorentzian fit to the measured spectrum. (c) Wavelength shift of the lasing mode (left axis) and reconstructed temperature profile (right axis) along the fiber when the microlaser was moved over two heaters set to 22  K above room temperature. The red curve plots the simulated temperature distribution using finite element modeling. ΔT refers to the temperature of the first experimental data point.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Lasing resonance shift (black dots) and particle speed variation (red curve) as a function of particle position along the HC-PCF. The grey-shaded area represents heated region.

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