Abstract

In this Letter, simultaneous imaging of flow and sound by using parallel phase-shifting interferometry and a high-speed polarization camera is proposed. The proposed method enables the visualization of flow and sound simultaneously by using the following two factors: (i) injection of the gas, whose density is different from the surrounding air, makes the flow visible to interferometry, and (ii) time-directional processing is applied for extracting the small-amplitude sound wave from the high-speed flow video. An experiment with a frame rate of 42,000 frames per second for visualizing the flow and sound emitted from a whistle was conducted. By applying time-directional processing to the obtained video, both flow emitted from the slit of the whistle and a spherical sound wave of 8.7 kHz were successively captured.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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M. Ney, A. Safrani, and I. Abdulhalim, Opt. Lett. 42, 719 (2017).
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[Crossref]

K. Yatabe, K. Ishikawa, and Y. Oikawa, J. Sound Vib. 394, 171 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Chitanont, K. Yatabe, K. Ishikawa, and Y. Oikawa, Appl. Acoust. 115, 109 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Yatabe, K. Ishikawa, and Y. Oikawa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 34, 87 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Yatabe, K. Ishikawa, and Y. Oikawa, Opt. Express 25, 29401 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (5)

A. Safrani and I. Abdulhalim, Appl. Opt. 54, 5083 (2015).
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A. Safrani and I. Abdulhalim, Opt. Lett. 40, 4651 (2015).
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T. Yatagai, B. J. Jackin, A. Ono, K. Kiyohara, M. Noguchi, M. Yoshii, M. Kiyohara, H. Niwa, K. Ikuo, and T. Onuma, Proc. SPIE 9660, 966018 (2015).
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2014 (4)

2012 (1)

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[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

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[Crossref]

Y. Nakazono, Y. Sonoda, Y. Ouchi, and Y. Nasu, J. Visualization 11(2), 153 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. R. Jonassen, G. S. Settles, and M. D. Tronosky, Opt. Laser Eng. 44, 190 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. I. Hileman, B. S. Thurow, E. J. Caraballo, and M. Samimy, J. Fluid Mech. 544, 277 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. J. Adrian, Exp. Fluids 39, 159 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

Y. Awatsuji, M. Sasada, and T. Kubota, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1069 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, M. B. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, Proc. SPIE 5531, 304 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. Talotte, J. Sound Vib. 231, 549 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

J. Panda, J. Fluid Mech. 378, 71 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Raman, J. Sound Vib. 225, 543 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

1991 (1)

C. E. Willert and M. Gharib, Exp. Fluids 10, 181 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

D. Watt and C. Vest, Exp. Fluids 8, 301 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

R. Goldstein, H. Zebker, and C. Werner, Radio Sci. 23, 713 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

D. Watt and C. Vest, Exp. Fluids 5, 401 (1987).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

M. S. Howe, J. Fluid Mech. 71, 625 (1975).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

J. W. Coltman, Phys. Today 21(11), 25 (1968).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

M. J. Lighthill, Proc. R. Soc. London A 211, 564 (1952).
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Abdulhalim, I.

Abdulhlaim, I.

M. Ney, A. Safrani, and I. Abdulhlaim, J. Opt. 18, 09LT02 (2016).
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Adrian, R. J.

R. J. Adrian, Exp. Fluids 39, 159 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. J. Adrian and J. Westerweel, Particle Image Velocimetry (Cambridge University, 2011).

Andrés, N.

Arroyo, P.

Awatsuji, Y.

Bareiß, R.

S. Wagner, R. Bareiß, and G. Guidati, Wind Turbine Noise (Springer, 1996).

Barrera-Figueroa, S.

A. Torras-Rosell, S. Barrera-Figueroa, and F. Jacobsen, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 3786 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bertling, K.

Bosch, T.

Brock, N. J.

J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, M. B. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, Proc. SPIE 5531, 304 (2004).
[Crossref]

Caraballo, E. J.

J. I. Hileman, B. S. Thurow, E. J. Caraballo, and M. Samimy, J. Fluid Mech. 544, 277 (2005).
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Chitanont, N.

Coltman, J. W.

J. W. Coltman, Phys. Today 21(11), 25 (1968).
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Di, J.

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A. Henning, K. Kaepernick, K. Ehrenfried, L. Koop, and A. Dillmann, Exp. Fluids 45, 1073 (2008).
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A. Henning, K. Kaepernick, K. Ehrenfried, L. Koop, and A. Dillmann, Exp. Fluids 45, 1073 (2008).
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T. Kakue, Y. Endo, T. Nishitsuji, T. Shimobaba, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, Sci. Rep. 7, 10413 (2017).
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Fujii, M.

Fukuda, T.

Gharib, M.

C. E. Willert and M. Gharib, Exp. Fluids 10, 181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ghiglia, D. C.

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms and Software (Wiley, 1998).

Goldstein, R.

R. Goldstein, H. Zebker, and C. Werner, Radio Sci. 23, 713 (1988).
[Crossref]

Goto, M.

Y. Oikawa, Y. Ikeda, M. Goto, T. Takizawa, and Y. Yamasaki, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2005), pp. 661–664.

Guidati, G.

S. Wagner, R. Bareiß, and G. Guidati, Wind Turbine Noise (Springer, 1996).

Hayes, J. B.

J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, M. B. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, Proc. SPIE 5531, 304 (2004).
[Crossref]

Henning, A.

A. Henning, K. Kaepernick, K. Ehrenfried, L. Koop, and A. Dillmann, Exp. Fluids 45, 1073 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hileman, J. I.

J. I. Hileman, B. S. Thurow, E. J. Caraballo, and M. Samimy, J. Fluid Mech. 544, 277 (2005).
[Crossref]

Howe, M. S.

M. S. Howe, J. Fluid Mech. 71, 625 (1975).
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Ikeda, Y.

K. Ishikawa, K. Yatabe, Y. Ikeda, Y. Oikawa, T. Onuma, H. Niwa, and M. Yoshii, Proc. SPIE 10328, 103280I (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Ishikawa, K. Yatabe, N. Chitanont, Y. Ikeda, Y. Oikawa, T. Onuma, H. Niwa, and M. Yoshii, Opt. Express 24, 12922 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Oikawa, Y. Ikeda, M. Goto, T. Takizawa, and Y. Yamasaki, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2005), pp. 661–664.

Ikuo, K.

T. Yatagai, B. J. Jackin, A. Ono, K. Kiyohara, M. Noguchi, M. Yoshii, M. Kiyohara, H. Niwa, K. Ikuo, and T. Onuma, Proc. SPIE 9660, 966018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Inokuchi, H.

Ishikawa, K.

Ito, K.

Ito, T.

T. Kakue, Y. Endo, T. Nishitsuji, T. Shimobaba, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, Sci. Rep. 7, 10413 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jackin, B. J.

T. Yatagai, B. J. Jackin, A. Ono, K. Kiyohara, M. Noguchi, M. Yoshii, M. Kiyohara, H. Niwa, K. Ikuo, and T. Onuma, Proc. SPIE 9660, 966018 (2015).
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Jacobsen, F.

A. Torras-Rosell, S. Barrera-Figueroa, and F. Jacobsen, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 3786 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jonassen, D. R.

D. R. Jonassen, G. S. Settles, and M. D. Tronosky, Opt. Laser Eng. 44, 190 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kaepernick, K.

A. Henning, K. Kaepernick, K. Ehrenfried, L. Koop, and A. Dillmann, Exp. Fluids 45, 1073 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kakue, T.

Kiyohara, K.

T. Yatagai, B. J. Jackin, A. Ono, K. Kiyohara, M. Noguchi, M. Yoshii, M. Kiyohara, H. Niwa, K. Ikuo, and T. Onuma, Proc. SPIE 9660, 966018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kiyohara, M.

T. Yatagai, B. J. Jackin, A. Ono, K. Kiyohara, M. Noguchi, M. Yoshii, M. Kiyohara, H. Niwa, K. Ikuo, and T. Onuma, Proc. SPIE 9660, 966018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koop, L.

A. Henning, K. Kaepernick, K. Ehrenfried, L. Koop, and A. Dillmann, Exp. Fluids 45, 1073 (2008).
[Crossref]

Koukoulas, T.

T. Koukoulas and B. Piper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 164101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kubota, T.

Lighthill, M. J.

M. J. Lighthill, Proc. R. Soc. London A 211, 564 (1952).
[Crossref]

Lilley, G. M.

P. J. Morris and G. M. Lilley, Aerodynamic Noise: Theory and Applications (Wiley, 2008), pp. 128–158.

Malkin, R.

Masuda, N.

T. Kakue, Y. Endo, T. Nishitsuji, T. Shimobaba, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, Sci. Rep. 7, 10413 (2017).
[Crossref]

Matoba, O.

Millerd, J. E.

J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, M. B. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, Proc. SPIE 5531, 304 (2004).
[Crossref]

Morris, P. J.

P. J. Morris and G. M. Lilley, Aerodynamic Noise: Theory and Applications (Wiley, 2008), pp. 128–158.

Nakazono, Y.

Y. Nakazono, Y. Sonoda, Y. Ouchi, and Y. Nasu, J. Visualization 11(2), 153 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nasu, Y.

Y. Nakazono, Y. Sonoda, Y. Ouchi, and Y. Nasu, J. Visualization 11(2), 153 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ney, M.

M. Ney, A. Safrani, and I. Abdulhalim, Opt. Lett. 42, 719 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ney, A. Safrani, and I. Abdulhlaim, J. Opt. 18, 09LT02 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nishio, K.

Nishitsuji, T.

T. Kakue, Y. Endo, T. Nishitsuji, T. Shimobaba, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, Sci. Rep. 7, 10413 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nitta, K.

Niwa, H.

K. Ishikawa, K. Yatabe, Y. Ikeda, Y. Oikawa, T. Onuma, H. Niwa, and M. Yoshii, Proc. SPIE 10328, 103280I (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Ishikawa, K. Yatabe, N. Chitanont, Y. Ikeda, Y. Oikawa, T. Onuma, H. Niwa, and M. Yoshii, Opt. Express 24, 12922 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Yatagai, B. J. Jackin, A. Ono, K. Kiyohara, M. Noguchi, M. Yoshii, M. Kiyohara, H. Niwa, K. Ikuo, and T. Onuma, Proc. SPIE 9660, 966018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Noguchi, M.

T. Yatagai, B. J. Jackin, A. Ono, K. Kiyohara, M. Noguchi, M. Yoshii, M. Kiyohara, H. Niwa, K. Ikuo, and T. Onuma, Proc. SPIE 9660, 966018 (2015).
[Crossref]

North-Morris, M. B.

J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, M. B. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, Proc. SPIE 5531, 304 (2004).
[Crossref]

Novak, M.

J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, M. B. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, Proc. SPIE 5531, 304 (2004).
[Crossref]

Oikawa, Y.

N. Chitanont, K. Yatabe, K. Ishikawa, and Y. Oikawa, Appl. Acoust. 115, 109 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Yatabe, K. Ishikawa, and Y. Oikawa, J. Sound Vib. 394, 171 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Ishikawa, K. Yatabe, Y. Ikeda, Y. Oikawa, T. Onuma, H. Niwa, and M. Yoshii, Proc. SPIE 10328, 103280I (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Yatabe, K. Ishikawa, and Y. Oikawa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 34, 87 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Yatabe, K. Ishikawa, and Y. Oikawa, Opt. Express 25, 29401 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Yatabe, K. Ishikawa, and Y. Oikawa, Opt. Express 24, 22881 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Ishikawa, K. Yatabe, N. Chitanont, Y. Ikeda, Y. Oikawa, T. Onuma, H. Niwa, and M. Yoshii, Opt. Express 24, 12922 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Oikawa, Y. Ikeda, M. Goto, T. Takizawa, and Y. Yamasaki, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2005), pp. 661–664.

Ono, A.

T. Yatagai, B. J. Jackin, A. Ono, K. Kiyohara, M. Noguchi, M. Yoshii, M. Kiyohara, H. Niwa, K. Ikuo, and T. Onuma, Proc. SPIE 9660, 966018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Onuma, T.

K. Ishikawa, K. Yatabe, Y. Ikeda, Y. Oikawa, T. Onuma, H. Niwa, and M. Yoshii, Proc. SPIE 10328, 103280I (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Ishikawa, K. Yatabe, N. Chitanont, Y. Ikeda, Y. Oikawa, T. Onuma, H. Niwa, and M. Yoshii, Opt. Express 24, 12922 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Yatagai, B. J. Jackin, A. Ono, K. Kiyohara, M. Noguchi, M. Yoshii, M. Kiyohara, H. Niwa, K. Ikuo, and T. Onuma, Proc. SPIE 9660, 966018 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Onuma and Y. Otani, Opt. Commun. 315, 69 (2014).
[Crossref]

Otani, Y.

T. Onuma and Y. Otani, Opt. Commun. 315, 69 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ouchi, Y.

Y. Nakazono, Y. Sonoda, Y. Ouchi, and Y. Nasu, J. Visualization 11(2), 153 (2008).
[Crossref]

Panda, J.

J. Panda, J. Fluid Mech. 378, 71 (1999).
[Crossref]

Perchoux, J.

Piper, B.

T. Koukoulas and B. Piper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 164101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pritt, M. D.

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms and Software (Wiley, 1998).

Quintanilla, M.

Raffel, M.

M. Raffel, Exp. Fluids 56, 60 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rakic, A. D.

Raman, G.

G. Raman, J. Sound Vib. 225, 543 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Raman, J. Fluid Mech. 336, 69 (1997).
[Crossref]

Robert, D.

Safrani, A.

Samimy, M.

J. I. Hileman, B. S. Thurow, E. J. Caraballo, and M. Samimy, J. Fluid Mech. 544, 277 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sasada, M.

Y. Awatsuji, M. Sasada, and T. Kubota, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1069 (2004).
[Crossref]

Settles, G. S.

D. R. Jonassen, G. S. Settles, and M. D. Tronosky, Opt. Laser Eng. 44, 190 (2006).
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Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       High-speed video of the flow and sound emitted from the whistle.
» Visualization 2       Audio data extracted from the microphone and PPSI measurement.
» Visualization 3       Time evolution of the flow emitted from the whistle. This video contains only one in every 10 frames of the measured PPSI images.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the experimental apparatus.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Example of the measured image and the photo of the whistle. The whistle was located at the bottom of the imaging area. Its edge can be seen in the lower right of the image.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Imaging results. (a) Phase images of four successive frames. (b) Differential images of the images in (a). The color range was chosen with respect to the amplitude of the sound wave (see Visualization 1).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Power spectrum of PPSI and microphone data. The PPSI spectrum was calculated from the averaged waveform of 10    pixels × 10    pixels in upper-right area in the images.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Differential images with an interval of 4.76 ms, corresponding to 200 frames. The emission of the flow was begun at 0 ms. The sound wave appeared approximately after 30 ms (see Visualization 3).

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