Abstract

We present significantly improved performance data of a diode-pumped Q-switched Alexandrite laser in single longitudinal mode operation developed as a beam source for resonance lidar systems. The average output power of the laser—operating at the potassium resonance at 770 nm with a linewidth below 10 MHz—could be increased by a factor of five to the Watt-level by means of an optimized resonator design and pump scheme. The pulse energy is 1.7 mJ with a beam quality of M21.1 in both spatial directions at a repetition rate of 500 Hz.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. B. Kaifler, F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, R. J. Morris, and T. P. Viehl, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 4506 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  2. F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, E. Becker, R. Latteck, B. Kaifler, D. Murphy, and R. J. Morris, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 12394 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Zhao, X. Chu, C. Chen, X. Lu, W. Fong, Z. Yu, R. M. Jones, B. R. Roberts, and A. Dörnbrack, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 122, 5041 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, B. Kaifler, and R. J. Morris, Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L24806 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Rapp, F.-J. Lübken, A. Müllemann, G. E. Thomas, and E. J. Jensen, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 107, D19 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Höffner and F.-J. Lübken, J. Geophys. Res. 112, D20114 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Munk, B. Jungbluth, M. Strotkamp, H.-D. Hoffmann, R. Poprawe, J. Höffner, and F.-J. Lübken, Opt. Express 26, 14928 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. V. Wulfmeyer and J. Bösenberg, Opt. Lett. 21, 1150 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  9. U. von Zahn and J. Höffner, Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 141 (1996).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  13. K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6451, 64511L (2007).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

2017 (1)

J. Zhao, X. Chu, C. Chen, X. Lu, W. Fong, Z. Yu, R. M. Jones, B. R. Roberts, and A. Dörnbrack, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 122, 5041 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

B. Kaifler, F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, R. J. Morris, and T. P. Viehl, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 4506 (2015).
[Crossref]

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, E. Becker, R. Latteck, B. Kaifler, D. Murphy, and R. J. Morris, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 12394 (2015).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, B. Kaifler, and R. J. Morris, Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L24806 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

C. Wessling, S. Hengesbach, J. Geiger, J. Dolkemeyer, M. Traub, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6876, 687614 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. Höffner and F.-J. Lübken, J. Geophys. Res. 112, D20114 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6451, 64511L (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Rapp, F.-J. Lübken, A. Müllemann, G. E. Thomas, and E. J. Jensen, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 107, D19 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

U. von Zahn and J. Höffner, Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 141 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. Wulfmeyer and J. Bösenberg, Opt. Lett. 21, 1150 (1996).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

J. Walling, O. Peterson, H. Jenssen, R. Morris, and E. O’Dell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1302 (1980).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

Becker, E.

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, E. Becker, R. Latteck, B. Kaifler, D. Murphy, and R. J. Morris, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 12394 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bösenberg, J.

Chen, C.

J. Zhao, X. Chu, C. Chen, X. Lu, W. Fong, Z. Yu, R. M. Jones, B. R. Roberts, and A. Dörnbrack, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 122, 5041 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chu, X.

J. Zhao, X. Chu, C. Chen, X. Lu, W. Fong, Z. Yu, R. M. Jones, B. R. Roberts, and A. Dörnbrack, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 122, 5041 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dolkemeyer, J.

C. Wessling, S. Hengesbach, J. Geiger, J. Dolkemeyer, M. Traub, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6876, 687614 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dörnbrack, A.

J. Zhao, X. Chu, C. Chen, X. Lu, W. Fong, Z. Yu, R. M. Jones, B. R. Roberts, and A. Dörnbrack, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 122, 5041 (2017).
[Crossref]

Evtuhov, V.

Fong, W.

J. Zhao, X. Chu, C. Chen, X. Lu, W. Fong, Z. Yu, R. M. Jones, B. R. Roberts, and A. Dörnbrack, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 122, 5041 (2017).
[Crossref]

Geiger, J.

C. Wessling, S. Hengesbach, J. Geiger, J. Dolkemeyer, M. Traub, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6876, 687614 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hengesbach, S.

C. Wessling, S. Hengesbach, J. Geiger, J. Dolkemeyer, M. Traub, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6876, 687614 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hoefer, M.

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6451, 64511L (2007).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, D.

C. Wessling, S. Hengesbach, J. Geiger, J. Dolkemeyer, M. Traub, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6876, 687614 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6451, 64511L (2007).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, H.-D.

Höffner, J.

A. Munk, B. Jungbluth, M. Strotkamp, H.-D. Hoffmann, R. Poprawe, J. Höffner, and F.-J. Lübken, Opt. Express 26, 14928 (2018).
[Crossref]

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, E. Becker, R. Latteck, B. Kaifler, D. Murphy, and R. J. Morris, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 12394 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Kaifler, F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, R. J. Morris, and T. P. Viehl, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 4506 (2015).
[Crossref]

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, B. Kaifler, and R. J. Morris, Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L24806 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Höffner and F.-J. Lübken, J. Geophys. Res. 112, D20114 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6451, 64511L (2007).
[Crossref]

U. von Zahn and J. Höffner, Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 141 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jensen, E. J.

M. Rapp, F.-J. Lübken, A. Müllemann, G. E. Thomas, and E. J. Jensen, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 107, D19 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jenssen, H.

J. Walling, O. Peterson, H. Jenssen, R. Morris, and E. O’Dell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1302 (1980).
[Crossref]

Jones, R. M.

J. Zhao, X. Chu, C. Chen, X. Lu, W. Fong, Z. Yu, R. M. Jones, B. R. Roberts, and A. Dörnbrack, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 122, 5041 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jungbluth, B.

Kaifler, B.

B. Kaifler, F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, R. J. Morris, and T. P. Viehl, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 4506 (2015).
[Crossref]

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, E. Becker, R. Latteck, B. Kaifler, D. Murphy, and R. J. Morris, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 12394 (2015).
[Crossref]

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, B. Kaifler, and R. J. Morris, Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L24806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Latteck, R.

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, E. Becker, R. Latteck, B. Kaifler, D. Murphy, and R. J. Morris, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 12394 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lemmerz, C.

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6451, 64511L (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

J. Zhao, X. Chu, C. Chen, X. Lu, W. Fong, Z. Yu, R. M. Jones, B. R. Roberts, and A. Dörnbrack, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 122, 5041 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lübken, F.-J.

A. Munk, B. Jungbluth, M. Strotkamp, H.-D. Hoffmann, R. Poprawe, J. Höffner, and F.-J. Lübken, Opt. Express 26, 14928 (2018).
[Crossref]

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, E. Becker, R. Latteck, B. Kaifler, D. Murphy, and R. J. Morris, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 12394 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Kaifler, F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, R. J. Morris, and T. P. Viehl, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 4506 (2015).
[Crossref]

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, B. Kaifler, and R. J. Morris, Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L24806 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Höffner and F.-J. Lübken, J. Geophys. Res. 112, D20114 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Rapp, F.-J. Lübken, A. Müllemann, G. E. Thomas, and E. J. Jensen, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 107, D19 (2002).
[Crossref]

Luttmann, J.

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6451, 64511L (2007).
[Crossref]

Morasch, V.

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6451, 64511L (2007).
[Crossref]

Morris, R.

J. Walling, O. Peterson, H. Jenssen, R. Morris, and E. O’Dell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1302 (1980).
[Crossref]

Morris, R. J.

B. Kaifler, F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, R. J. Morris, and T. P. Viehl, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 4506 (2015).
[Crossref]

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, E. Becker, R. Latteck, B. Kaifler, D. Murphy, and R. J. Morris, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 12394 (2015).
[Crossref]

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, B. Kaifler, and R. J. Morris, Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L24806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Müllemann, A.

M. Rapp, F.-J. Lübken, A. Müllemann, G. E. Thomas, and E. J. Jensen, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 107, D19 (2002).
[Crossref]

Munk, A.

Murphy, D.

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, E. Becker, R. Latteck, B. Kaifler, D. Murphy, and R. J. Morris, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 12394 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nicklaus, K.

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6451, 64511L (2007).
[Crossref]

O’Dell, E.

J. Walling, O. Peterson, H. Jenssen, R. Morris, and E. O’Dell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1302 (1980).
[Crossref]

Ostermeyer, M.

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6451, 64511L (2007).
[Crossref]

Peterson, O.

J. Walling, O. Peterson, H. Jenssen, R. Morris, and E. O’Dell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1302 (1980).
[Crossref]

Poprawe, R.

Rapp, M.

M. Rapp, F.-J. Lübken, A. Müllemann, G. E. Thomas, and E. J. Jensen, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 107, D19 (2002).
[Crossref]

Roberts, B. R.

J. Zhao, X. Chu, C. Chen, X. Lu, W. Fong, Z. Yu, R. M. Jones, B. R. Roberts, and A. Dörnbrack, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 122, 5041 (2017).
[Crossref]

Siegman, A. E.

Strotkamp, M.

Thomas, G. E.

M. Rapp, F.-J. Lübken, A. Müllemann, G. E. Thomas, and E. J. Jensen, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 107, D19 (2002).
[Crossref]

Traub, M.

C. Wessling, S. Hengesbach, J. Geiger, J. Dolkemeyer, M. Traub, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6876, 687614 (2008).
[Crossref]

Viehl, T. P.

B. Kaifler, F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, R. J. Morris, and T. P. Viehl, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 4506 (2015).
[Crossref]

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, E. Becker, R. Latteck, B. Kaifler, D. Murphy, and R. J. Morris, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 12394 (2015).
[Crossref]

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, B. Kaifler, and R. J. Morris, Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L24806 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vierkötter, M.

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6451, 64511L (2007).
[Crossref]

von Zahn, U.

U. von Zahn and J. Höffner, Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 141 (1996).
[Crossref]

Walling, J.

J. Walling, O. Peterson, H. Jenssen, R. Morris, and E. O’Dell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1302 (1980).
[Crossref]

Wessling, C.

C. Wessling, S. Hengesbach, J. Geiger, J. Dolkemeyer, M. Traub, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6876, 687614 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wulfmeyer, V.

Yu, Z.

J. Zhao, X. Chu, C. Chen, X. Lu, W. Fong, Z. Yu, R. M. Jones, B. R. Roberts, and A. Dörnbrack, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 122, 5041 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, X. Chu, C. Chen, X. Lu, W. Fong, Z. Yu, R. M. Jones, B. R. Roberts, and A. Dörnbrack, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 122, 5041 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, B. Kaifler, and R. J. Morris, Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L24806 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. von Zahn and J. Höffner, Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 141 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Walling, O. Peterson, H. Jenssen, R. Morris, and E. O’Dell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1302 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

J. Höffner and F.-J. Lübken, J. Geophys. Res. 112, D20114 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. (4)

M. Rapp, F.-J. Lübken, A. Müllemann, G. E. Thomas, and E. J. Jensen, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 107, D19 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. Kaifler, F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, R. J. Morris, and T. P. Viehl, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 4506 (2015).
[Crossref]

F.-J. Lübken, J. Höffner, T. P. Viehl, E. Becker, R. Latteck, B. Kaifler, D. Murphy, and R. J. Morris, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120, 12394 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, X. Chu, C. Chen, X. Lu, W. Fong, Z. Yu, R. M. Jones, B. R. Roberts, and A. Dörnbrack, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 122, 5041 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

C. Wessling, S. Hengesbach, J. Geiger, J. Dolkemeyer, M. Traub, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6876, 687614 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, Proc. SPIE 6451, 64511L (2007).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic drawing of the pump beam shaping.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Development of the beam radius of the pump light along the optical axis with a beam profile at the focus position (inlet). The calculated effective beam radius inside the crystal is 215 μm in fast- and 276 μm in slow-axis.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic drawing of the resonator.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measured pulse energy in Q -switched operation over more than 30 min with a zoom on the relevant energy range as the inlet.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Beam radius of the output beam plotted against the propagation length with the inset of the intensity profile at designated positions. The resulting beam qualities are M 2 = 1.10 in the x-direction and M 2 = 1.06 in the y-direction.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Requirements for the Beam Source in a Potassium Lidar System and Achieved Parameters for the Alexandrite Laser

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