Abstract

We hereby proposed and experimentally demonstrated an active polarization imaging technique, based on wavelength selection, for seeing through highly turbid water where targets are always visually lost. The method was realized by making use of the dependence of light scattering on wavelength in turbid water. Red light illumination was selected to minimize scattering occurring in light propagation and to guarantee accurate estimation of degree of polarization. Experiments demonstrate its contribution to turn targets in highly turbid water from “undetectable” to “detectable.”

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (2)

2011 (1)

J. Tong, W. Tan, J. Si, Y. Yang, W. Yi, F. Chen, and X. Hou, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 123104 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

W. Hou, Opt. Lett. 34, 2688 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Treibitz and Y. Y. Schechner, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 31, 385 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. M. Kocak, F. R. Dalgleish, F. M. Caimi, and Y. Y. Schechner, Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42, 52 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

Y. Y. Schechner and N. Karpel, IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 30, 570 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. A. Kartazayeva, X. Ni, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 30, 1168 (2005).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

G. A. Weyhenmeyer, T. Blenckner, and K. Pettersson, Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1788 (1999).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

K. Clays and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2980 (1991).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

O. Kopelevich and E. Mezhericher, Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 19, 144 (1983).

1981 (1)

Alfalou, A.

Alfano, R. R.

Baker, K. S.

Blenckner, T.

G. A. Weyhenmeyer, T. Blenckner, and K. Pettersson, Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1788 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bourennane, S.

C. Gabriel, M.-A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, P. Leon, and V. Rigaud, 2nd IEEE Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (2011).

Brosseau, C.

Caimi, F. M.

D. M. Kocak, F. R. Dalgleish, F. M. Caimi, and Y. Y. Schechner, Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42, 52 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

J. Tong, W. Tan, J. Si, Y. Yang, W. Yi, F. Chen, and X. Hou, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 123104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Clays, K.

K. Clays and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2980 (1991).
[Crossref]

Dalgleish, F. R.

D. M. Kocak, F. R. Dalgleish, F. M. Caimi, and Y. Y. Schechner, Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42, 52 (2008).
[Crossref]

Delrot, P.

Dogariu, A.

Dubreuil, M.

Fam, C. Y.

Gabriel, C.

C. Gabriel, M.-A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, P. Leon, and V. Rigaud, 2nd IEEE Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (2011).

Goode, W.

Han, W. C.

B. Laurie and W. C. Han, “Chinese ship that sank in Yangtze River was cited for safety issues,” (The Wall Street Journal, June 3, 2015).

Hou, W.

Hou, X.

J. Tong, W. Tan, J. Si, Y. Yang, W. Yi, F. Chen, and X. Hou, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 123104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jarosz, E.

Karpel, N.

Y. Y. Schechner and N. Karpel, IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 30, 570 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kartazayeva, S. A.

Khalighi, M.-A.

C. Gabriel, M.-A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, P. Leon, and V. Rigaud, 2nd IEEE Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (2011).

Kim, J.

J. Kim and C. Yoo, “More than 300 people missing after South Korea ferry sinks—Coast Guard,” (Reuters, April 16, 2014).

Kocak, D. M.

D. M. Kocak, F. R. Dalgleish, F. M. Caimi, and Y. Y. Schechner, Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42, 52 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kopelevich, O.

O. Kopelevich and E. Mezhericher, Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 19, 144 (1983).

Laurie, B.

B. Laurie and W. C. Han, “Chinese ship that sank in Yangtze River was cited for safety issues,” (The Wall Street Journal, June 3, 2015).

Leon, P.

C. Gabriel, M.-A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, P. Leon, and V. Rigaud, 2nd IEEE Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (2011).

Leonard, I.

Mezhericher, E.

O. Kopelevich and E. Mezhericher, Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 19, 144 (1983).

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

Myre, E.

E. Myre and R. Shaw, The Turbidity Tube: Simple and Accurate Measurement of Turbidity in the Field (Michigan Technological University, 2006).

Ni, X.

Persoons, A.

K. Clays and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2980 (1991).
[Crossref]

Pettersson, K.

G. A. Weyhenmeyer, T. Blenckner, and K. Pettersson, Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1788 (1999).
[Crossref]

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters (Scripps Institute of Oceanography La Jolla Ca Visibility Lab, 1972).

Rigaud, V.

C. Gabriel, M.-A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, P. Leon, and V. Rigaud, 2nd IEEE Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (2011).

Schechner, Y. Y.

T. Treibitz and Y. Y. Schechner, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 31, 385 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. M. Kocak, F. R. Dalgleish, F. M. Caimi, and Y. Y. Schechner, Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42, 52 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Schechner and N. Karpel, IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 30, 570 (2005).
[Crossref]

Seet, G.

Shaw, R.

E. Myre and R. Shaw, The Turbidity Tube: Simple and Accurate Measurement of Turbidity in the Field (Michigan Technological University, 2006).

Si, J.

J. Tong, W. Tan, J. Si, Y. Yang, W. Yi, F. Chen, and X. Hou, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 123104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sluzek, A.

Smith, R. C.

Tan, C.

Tan, W.

J. Tong, W. Tan, J. Si, Y. Yang, W. Yi, F. Chen, and X. Hou, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 123104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tong, J.

J. Tong, W. Tan, J. Si, Y. Yang, W. Yi, F. Chen, and X. Hou, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 123104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Treibitz, T.

T. Treibitz and Y. Y. Schechner, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 31, 385 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Weidemann, A.

Weyhenmeyer, G. A.

G. A. Weyhenmeyer, T. Blenckner, and K. Pettersson, Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1788 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wong, H. Y.

Woods, S.

Yang, Y.

J. Tong, W. Tan, J. Si, Y. Yang, W. Yi, F. Chen, and X. Hou, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 123104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yi, W.

J. Tong, W. Tan, J. Si, Y. Yang, W. Yi, F. Chen, and X. Hou, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 123104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoo, C.

J. Kim and C. Yoo, “More than 300 people missing after South Korea ferry sinks—Coast Guard,” (Reuters, April 16, 2014).

Yuen, C. T.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. (1)

Y. Y. Schechner and N. Karpel, IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 30, 570 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

T. Treibitz and Y. Y. Schechner, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 31, 385 (2009).
[Crossref]

Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. (1)

O. Kopelevich and E. Mezhericher, Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 19, 144 (1983).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Tong, W. Tan, J. Si, Y. Yang, W. Yi, F. Chen, and X. Hou, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 123104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

G. A. Weyhenmeyer, T. Blenckner, and K. Pettersson, Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1788 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mar. Technol. Soc. J. (1)

D. M. Kocak, F. R. Dalgleish, F. M. Caimi, and Y. Y. Schechner, Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42, 52 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Clays and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2980 (1991).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

T. J. Petzold, Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters (Scripps Institute of Oceanography La Jolla Ca Visibility Lab, 1972).

C. Gabriel, M.-A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, P. Leon, and V. Rigaud, 2nd IEEE Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (2011).

B. Laurie and W. C. Han, “Chinese ship that sank in Yangtze River was cited for safety issues,” (The Wall Street Journal, June 3, 2015).

J. Kim and C. Yoo, “More than 300 people missing after South Korea ferry sinks—Coast Guard,” (Reuters, April 16, 2014).

E. Myre and R. Shaw, The Turbidity Tube: Simple and Accurate Measurement of Turbidity in the Field (Michigan Technological University, 2006).

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       This video displays the variation of imaging results of three different methods with changes of water turbidity. The three methods include the direct intensity imaging method, the imaging method from “T. Treibitz, and Y. Y. Schechner”, active polarizationdescattering," from IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE 31, 385–399 (2009,” and the proposed method. It clearly demonstrated the ability of the proposed method in imaging through highly turbid water.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Directly captured images in turbid water at 41 NTU, 57 NTU, and 70 NTU.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Noise standard deviation σ obj as a function of σ 0 , p obj and p scat ; (b)  p obj as a function of water turbidity.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Measured VSF (volume scattering function) in four different water conditions [13]; (b) measured absorption and scattering coefficients of pure seawater.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental arrangement for imaging in highly turbid water.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Synoptic diagram of VL; FT denotes Fourier transform.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) CP value as a function of p obj in three different water conditions with a turbidity of 41 NTU, 57 NTU, and 70 NTU; (b) zoomed-in view of the marked part of plot (a).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a1) and (b1) Directly captured images in 41 NTU and 70 NTU turbid water; (a2) and (b2) results from traditional polarization imaging method; (a3) and (b3) finally detected images by the proposed method; (c) and (d) intensity profiles along the white dotted lines in (a1)–(b3) (see Visualization 1).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Detection results with blue light illumination (a1) to (f1), and from the proposed method (a2) to (f2) in water with gradually varied turbidity.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Measured light intensity at a 33 cm, 90 cm, and 174 cm distance.

Equations (8)

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I obj = 1 p scat p obj [ I max ( 1 + p scat ) I min ( 1 p scat ) ] I sca = 1 p scat p obj [ I max ( 1 p obj ) I min ( 1 + p obj ) ] ,
σ obj 2 = ( I obj I max ) 2 σ max 2 + ( I obj I min ) 2 σ min 2 = ( 1 + p scat p obj p scat ) 2 σ max 2 + ( 1 p scat p obj p scat ) 2 σ min 2 .
σ obj 2 = 2 [ 1 + p scat 2 ( p obj p scat ) 2 ] σ 0 2 .
β w ( ψ ; λ ) = β w ( 90 ° ; λ 0 ) ( λ 0 λ ) 4.32 ( 1 + 0.835 cos 2 ψ ) ,
β p ( ψ ; λ ) = v s β s ( ψ ) ( λ 0 λ ) 1.7 + v l β l ( ψ ) ( λ 0 λ ) 0.3 ,
p scat = I max I min I max + I min ,
H ( μ , υ ) = R * ( μ , υ ) / | R ( μ , υ ) | ,
u ( x , y ) = 1 4 π 2 T ( u , v ) R * ( u , v ) | R ( u , v ) | e i ( u x + v y ) d u d v .

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