Abstract

We propose a new method to image through dynamically changing turbid media based on the scanning of non-diffractive laser beams. We use computer-generated holograms to create Airy beams and compare quantitatively the characteristics of their propagation in clear and turbid media. Imaging contrast is achieved by relative reflection of the scanned beams from the imaged surface. We implement our method to demonstrate experimentally our ability to image a chromium surface on a glass slide through 270 μm of highly scattering milk/water mixtures with a resolution of several microns.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

E. Edrei and G. Scarcelli, Sci. Rep. 6, 33558 (2016).
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2015 (3)

2014 (4)

X. Yang, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Express 22, 3405 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Jia, J. C. Vaughan, and X. Zhuang, Nat. Photonics 8, 302 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, Nat. Photonics 8, 784 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (4)

F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Commun. 3, 632 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, Nature 491, 232 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Zhang, Y. Hu, T. Li, D. Cannan, X. Yin, R. Morandotti, Z. Chen, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 193901 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 23902 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. O. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Photonics 4, 780 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2003 (1)

C. Dunsby and P. French, J. Phys. D 36, R207 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. Heintzmann and C. G. Cremer, Proc. SPIE 3568, 185 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1987 (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref]

Arce-Diego, J. L.

N. Ortega-Quijano, F. Fanjul-Vélez, I. Salas-García, and J. L. Arce-Diego, 21st International Conference on Radioelektronika (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Arie, A.

Bertolotti, J.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, Nature 491, 232 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blum, C.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, Nature 491, 232 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boccara, A. C.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brake, J.

Broky, J.

J. Broky, G. A. Siviloglou, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Express 16, 12880 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cannan, D.

P. Zhang, Y. Hu, T. Li, D. Cannan, X. Yin, R. Morandotti, Z. Chen, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 193901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Carminati, R.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

P. Zhang, Y. Hu, T. Li, D. Cannan, X. Yin, R. Morandotti, Z. Chen, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 193901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 23902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 23902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cholis, I.

Christodoulides, D. N.

J. Broky, G. A. Siviloglou, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Express 16, 12880 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cižmár, T.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Coll-Lladó, C.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cremer, C. G.

R. Heintzmann and C. G. Cremer, Proc. SPIE 3568, 185 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dalgarno, H. I. C.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dasari, R. R.

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 23902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dogariu, A.

J. Broky, G. A. Siviloglou, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Express 16, 12880 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dunsby, C.

C. Dunsby and P. French, J. Phys. D 36, R207 (2003).
[Crossref]

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ebenstein, Y.

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref]

Edrei, E.

E. Edrei and G. Scarcelli, Sci. Rep. 6, 33558 (2016).
[Crossref]

Engelbrecht, C. J.

Fahrbach, F. O.

F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Commun. 3, 632 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. O. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Photonics 4, 780 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fang-Yen, C.

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 23902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fanjul-Vélez, F.

N. Ortega-Quijano, F. Fanjul-Vélez, I. Salas-García, and J. L. Arce-Diego, 21st International Conference on Radioelektronika (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Feld, M. S.

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 23902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ferrier, D. E. K.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fink, M.

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, Nat. Photonics 8, 784 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

French, P.

C. Dunsby and P. French, J. Phys. D 36, R207 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gigan, S.

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, Nat. Photonics 8, 784 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gluckman, Y.

Grabar, A. A.

Y. Liu, P. Lai, C. Ma, X. Xu, A. A. Grabar, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Commun. 6, 5904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grier, D. G.

Gunn-Moore, F. J.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gustafsson, M. G. L.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Heidmann, P.

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, Nat. Photonics 8, 784 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heintzmann, R.

R. Heintzmann and C. G. Cremer, Proc. SPIE 3568, 185 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hell, S. W.

Hu, Y.

P. Zhang, Y. Hu, T. Li, D. Cannan, X. Yin, R. Morandotti, Z. Chen, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 193901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jang, M.

Jia, S.

S. Jia, J. C. Vaughan, and X. Zhuang, Nat. Photonics 8, 302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kang, P.

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 23902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kasimov, D.

Katz, O.

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, Nat. Photonics 8, 784 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lagendijk, A.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, Nature 491, 232 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lai, P.

Y. Liu, P. Lai, C. Ma, X. Xu, A. A. Grabar, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Commun. 6, 5904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. J.

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 23902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lerosey, G.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

P. Zhang, Y. Hu, T. Li, D. Cannan, X. Yin, R. Morandotti, Z. Chen, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 193901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, P. Lai, C. Ma, X. Xu, A. A. Grabar, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Commun. 6, 5904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, C.

Y. Liu, P. Lai, C. Ma, X. Xu, A. A. Grabar, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Commun. 6, 5904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miceli, J. J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref]

Morandotti, R.

P. Zhang, Y. Hu, T. Li, D. Cannan, X. Yin, R. Morandotti, Z. Chen, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 193901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mosk, A. P.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, Nature 491, 232 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nylk, J.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ortega-Quijano, N.

N. Ortega-Quijano, F. Fanjul-Vélez, I. Salas-García, and J. L. Arce-Diego, 21st International Conference on Radioelektronika (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Popoff, S. M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Psaltis, D.

Pu, Y.

Remez, R.

Rohrbach, A.

F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Commun. 3, 632 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. O. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Photonics 4, 780 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roichman, Y.

Ruan, H.

Salas-García, I.

N. Ortega-Quijano, F. Fanjul-Vélez, I. Salas-García, and J. L. Arce-Diego, 21st International Conference on Radioelektronika (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Scarcelli, G.

E. Edrei and G. Scarcelli, Sci. Rep. 6, 33558 (2016).
[Crossref]

Silberberg, Y.

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[Crossref]

Simon, P.

F. O. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Photonics 4, 780 (2010).
[Crossref]

Singh, B. K.

Siviloglou, G. A.

J. Broky, G. A. Siviloglou, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Express 16, 12880 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Small, E.

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

Tsur, Y.

van Putten, E. G.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, Nature 491, 232 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vaughan, J. C.

S. Jia, J. C. Vaughan, and X. Zhuang, Nat. Photonics 8, 302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vettenburg, T.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vos, W. L.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, Nature 491, 232 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

Wang, L. V.

Y. Liu, P. Lai, C. Ma, X. Xu, A. A. Grabar, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Commun. 6, 5904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wichmann, J.

Xu, X.

Y. Liu, P. Lai, C. Ma, X. Xu, A. A. Grabar, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Commun. 6, 5904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

Yang, T. D.

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 23902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

Yevnin, M.

Yin, X.

P. Zhang, Y. Hu, T. Li, D. Cannan, X. Yin, R. Morandotti, Z. Chen, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 193901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

P. Zhang, Y. Hu, T. Li, D. Cannan, X. Yin, R. Morandotti, Z. Chen, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 193901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

P. Zhang, Y. Hu, T. Li, D. Cannan, X. Yin, R. Morandotti, Z. Chen, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 193901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, E. H.

Zhuang, X.

S. Jia, J. C. Vaughan, and X. Zhuang, Nat. Photonics 8, 302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

J. Microsc. (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D (1)

C. Dunsby and P. French, J. Phys. D 36, R207 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

Y. Liu, P. Lai, C. Ma, X. Xu, A. A. Grabar, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Commun. 6, 5904 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Commun. 3, 632 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Methods (2)

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Methods 11, 541 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (4)

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, Nat. Photonics 8, 784 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Jia, J. C. Vaughan, and X. Zhuang, Nat. Photonics 8, 302 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. O. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Photonics 4, 780 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, Nature 491, 232 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 23902 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of the imaging system. A laser beam is expanded to cover the face of an SLM. The hologram encoded on the beam by the SLM is formed in the sample plane of the microscope. The scanning is done by an XYZ microscope stage. (b) Phase mask of a 2D Airy beam with =60.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Intensity of Airy beams with different created and imaged by mirror scanning along the beam propagation (top) and in the focal plan (bottom) formed by a 10× (NA=0.4) objective. (b) Normalized intensity of the peak intensity of the main lobe of an Airy beam as function of depth for =25 (red triangles) and for a Gaussian beam (blue circles). Note that Z=0 is the focal plane. (c) Average intensity of the main lobe of a 2D Airy beam along a direction perpendicular to the direction of propagation in water (blue circles) and milk (green triangles). (d) Normalized intensity distribution and shape comparison between Airy and Gaussian beams in water and milk created through a ×40 (NA=0.95) objective, as projected on the XZ plane. The dashed white line indicates the focal plane.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Scanning method. (a) Beam is scanned horizontally and propagates perpendicular to the imaged plane in a similar configuration used for confocal microscopy. (b) Upon encountering an object, the beam is reflected and recorded by a camera. The relation between the position of the illuminating beam and the intensity of reflection is recoded from a sequence of images taken during the scan. (c) We reconstruct the reflectance map of the sample from this image sequence.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relative intensity of the reflected beam along a single scanned line over the target. Scans of (a) Airy and (b) Gaussian beams in water (blue circles) and milk/water mixtures with scattering coefficients of: μs25  cm1 (green circles), μs44  cm1 (red circles), and μs63  cm1 (cyan circles). Reconstructed images from Airy and Gaussian beam scans through water (c), (f) and milk/water mixtures with scattering coefficients of (d), (h) μs25  cm1, (e), (i) μs44  cm1, and (f), (j) μs63  cm1, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Characterization of imaging quality. (a) Example of a line scan (top) and known target profile (bottom). The PSF extracted by deconvolution of the known target profile from the line scan image taken by (b) 2D Airy beam scanning and (c) a Gaussian-beam-based scan. The SNR as a function of (d)–(f) μs and (g)–(i) the extracted PSF width, d, for Airy (red triangles) and Gaussian (blue circles)-based scans, for target width and spacing W=15.6, 6.96, and 3.9 μm, respectively. The errors bars represent the standard deviation of the different scans.

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