Abstract

The digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) technique is being actively developed for optical focusing and imaging through or inside complex media. Due to its time-reversal nature, DOPC has been exploited to regenerate different intensity targets. However, whether the targets with three-dimensional information through complex media could be recovered has not been experimentally demonstrated, to the best of our knowledge. Here, we present a method to regenerate structured laser beams based on DOPC. Although only the phase of the original scattered wave is time reversed, the reconstruction of a quasi-Bessel beam and vortex beams through a multimode fiber (MMF) is demonstrated. The regenerated quasi-Bessel beam shows the features of sub-diffraction focusing and a longer depth of field with respect to a Gaussian beam. Moreover, the reconstruction of vortex beams shows the fidelity of DOPC both in amplitude and phase, which is demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. We also prove that the reconstruction results of DOPC through the MMF are indeed phase conjugate to the original targets. We expect that these results could be useful in super-resolution imaging and optical micromanipulation through complex media, and further pave the way for achieving three-dimensional imaging based on DOPC.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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References

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B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, S. J. Ge, W. Duan, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 121105 (2016).
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Y. Shen, Y. Liu, C. Ma, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 41, 1130 (2016).
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[Crossref]

P. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Liu, L. Han, H. Cheng, F. Yu, and J. Zhao, Opt. Lett. 41, 4811 (2016).
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2015 (6)

Y. Peng, X. Gan, P. Ju, Y. Wang, and J. Zhao, Chin. Phys. Lett. 32, 024201 (2015).
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2014 (2)

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2012 (5)

T. Cižmár and K. Dholakia, Nat. Commun. 3, 1027 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Duocastella and C. B. Arnold, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 607 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, M. Cui, and C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 081108 (2012).
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[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

M. Cui and C. Yang, Opt. Express 18, 3444 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Express 18, 12283 (2010).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

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[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

J. Durnin, J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ancora, D.

D. Di Battista, D. Ancora, M. Leonetti, and G. Zacharakis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 121110 (2016).
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Andrews, D. L.

D. L. Andrews, Structured Light and Its Applications (Academic, 2008).

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M. Duocastella and C. B. Arnold, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 607 (2012).
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C. Ma, J. Di, Y. Li, F. Xiao, J. Zhang, K. Liu, X. Bai, and J. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Express 11, 062501 (2018).
[Crossref]

Blochet, B.

Boccara, A. C.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boniface, A.

Brake, J.

Carminati, R.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, S. J. Ge, W. Duan, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 121105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

Cheng, Z. J.

Y. Y. Xie, B. Y. Wang, Z. J. Cheng, Q. Y. Yue, and C. S. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 221105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.

T. R. Hillman, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Y. Park, and Z. Yaqoob, Sci. Rep. 3, 1909 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cižmár, T.

T. Cižmár and K. Dholakia, Nat. Commun. 3, 1027 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cui, M.

I. M. Vellekoop, M. Cui, and C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 081108 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Cui and C. Yang, Opt. Express 18, 3444 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dai, S.

Dasari, R. R.

T. R. Hillman, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Y. Park, and Z. Yaqoob, Sci. Rep. 3, 1909 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

T. Cižmár and K. Dholakia, Nat. Commun. 3, 1027 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[Crossref]

Di, J.

Di Battista, D.

D. Di Battista, D. Ancora, M. Leonetti, and G. Zacharakis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 121110 (2016).
[Crossref]

Duan, W.

B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, S. J. Ge, W. Duan, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 121105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Duocastella, M.

M. Duocastella and C. B. Arnold, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 607 (2012).
[Crossref]

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref]

Farahi, S.

Feld, M. S.

T. R. Hillman, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Y. Park, and Z. Yaqoob, Sci. Rep. 3, 1909 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 2, 110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fink, M.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gan, X.

Y. Peng, X. Gan, P. Ju, Y. Wang, and J. Zhao, Chin. Phys. Lett. 32, 024201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ge, S. J.

B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, S. J. Ge, W. Duan, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 121105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gigan, S.

S. Rotter and S. Gigan, Rev. Mod. Phys. 89, 015005 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Boniface, M. Mounaix, B. Blochet, R. Piestun, and S. Gigan, Optica 4, 54 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grange, R.

Guo, C. S.

Y. Y. Xie, B. Y. Wang, Z. J. Cheng, Q. Y. Yue, and C. S. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 221105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Han, L.

Hillman, T. R.

T. R. Hillman, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Y. Park, and Z. Yaqoob, Sci. Rep. 3, 1909 (2013).
[Crossref]

Horstmeyer, R.

R. Horstmeyer, H. Ruan, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 9, 563 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C. L.

Hu, W.

B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, S. J. Ge, W. Duan, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 121105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jang, M.

Ju, P.

Y. Peng, X. Gan, P. Ju, Y. Wang, and J. Zhao, Chin. Phys. Lett. 32, 024201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Judkewitz, B.

Kim, K.

H. Yu, J. Park, K. Lee, J. Yoon, K. Kim, S. Lee, and Y. Park, Curr. Appl. Phys. 15, 632 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kong, L. J.

Lagendijk, A.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[Crossref]

Laporte, G.

Lee, J.

K. Lee, J. Lee, J. H. Park, J. H. Park, and Y. Park, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 153902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

H. Yu, J. Park, K. Lee, J. Yoon, K. Kim, S. Lee, and Y. Park, Curr. Appl. Phys. 15, 632 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, J. Lee, J. H. Park, J. H. Park, and Y. Park, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 153902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

H. Yu, J. Park, K. Lee, J. Yoon, K. Kim, S. Lee, and Y. Park, Curr. Appl. Phys. 15, 632 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leonetti, M.

D. Di Battista, D. Ancora, M. Leonetti, and G. Zacharakis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 121110 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lerosey, G.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, E.

Li, P.

Li, Y.

Liu, K.

C. Ma, J. Di, Y. Li, F. Xiao, J. Zhang, K. Liu, X. Bai, and J. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Express 11, 062501 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Liu, Y.

Lu, Y. Q.

B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, S. J. Ge, W. Duan, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 121105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ma, C.

McGloin, D.

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[Crossref]

Miceli, J.

J. Durnin, J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[Crossref]

Moser, C.

Mosk, A. P.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, Opt. Lett. 32, 2309 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mounaix, M.

Padgett, M. J.

Papadopoulos, I. N.

Park, J.

H. Yu, J. Park, K. Lee, J. Yoon, K. Kim, S. Lee, and Y. Park, Curr. Appl. Phys. 15, 632 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, J. H.

K. Lee, J. Lee, J. H. Park, J. H. Park, and Y. Park, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 153902 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, J. Lee, J. H. Park, J. H. Park, and Y. Park, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 153902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

K. Lee, J. Lee, J. H. Park, J. H. Park, and Y. Park, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 153902 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, J. Park, K. Lee, J. Yoon, K. Kim, S. Lee, and Y. Park, Curr. Appl. Phys. 15, 632 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. R. Hillman, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Y. Park, and Z. Yaqoob, Sci. Rep. 3, 1909 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peng, Y.

Y. Peng, X. Gan, P. Ju, Y. Wang, and J. Zhao, Chin. Phys. Lett. 32, 024201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Piestun, R.

Popoff, S. M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Psaltis, D.

Pu, Y.

Qian, S. X.

Rotter, S.

S. Rotter and S. Gigan, Rev. Mod. Phys. 89, 015005 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ruan, H.

Shen, Y.

Sun, W.

Tu, C. H.

Vellekoop, I. M.

I. M. Vellekoop, M. Cui, and C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 081108 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, Opt. Lett. 32, 2309 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, B. Y.

Y. Y. Xie, B. Y. Wang, Z. J. Cheng, Q. Y. Yue, and C. S. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 221105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

Wang, H. T.

Wang, L.

Wang, L. V.

Wang, Q.

Wang, Y.

Y. Peng, X. Gan, P. Ju, Y. Wang, and J. Zhao, Chin. Phys. Lett. 32, 024201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, B. Y.

B. Y. Wei, P. Chen, S. J. Ge, W. Duan, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 121105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xi, T.

Xiao, F.

C. Ma, J. Di, Y. Li, F. Xiao, J. Zhang, K. Liu, X. Bai, and J. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Express 11, 062501 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Xie, B. Y. Wang, Z. J. Cheng, Q. Y. Yue, and C. S. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 221105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamauchi, T.

T. R. Hillman, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Y. Park, and Z. Yaqoob, Sci. Rep. 3, 1909 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

D. Wang, E. H. Zhou, J. Brake, H. Ruan, M. Jang, and C. Yang, Optica 2, 728 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Horstmeyer, H. Ruan, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 9, 563 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Jang, H. Ruan, H. Zhou, B. Judkewitz, and C. Yang, Opt. Express 22, 14054 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, M. Cui, and C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 081108 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Cui and C. Yang, Opt. Express 18, 3444 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 2, 110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yao, A. M.

Yaqoob, Z.

T. R. Hillman, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Y. Park, and Z. Yaqoob, Sci. Rep. 3, 1909 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 2, 110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yoon, J.

H. Yu, J. Park, K. Lee, J. Yoon, K. Kim, S. Lee, and Y. Park, Curr. Appl. Phys. 15, 632 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, F.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, J. Park, K. Lee, J. Yoon, K. Kim, S. Lee, and Y. Park, Curr. Appl. Phys. 15, 632 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yue, Q. Y.

Y. Y. Xie, B. Y. Wang, Z. J. Cheng, Q. Y. Yue, and C. S. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 221105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zacharakis, G.

D. Di Battista, D. Ancora, M. Leonetti, and G. Zacharakis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 121110 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, J.

Zhou, E. H.

Zhou, F.

Zhou, H.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of a DOPC system for regenerating structured laser beams. MO1MO3, microscope objectives; L1L7, lenses; HWP, half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; BS1BS3, beam splitters; M, mirror; SLM, spatial light modulator; CMOS, complementary metal oxide semiconductor; CCD, charge coupled device.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Reconstruction results for focusing through a MMF based on DOPC. (a1)–(a3), (b1)–(b3) Results when a Gaussian and quasi-Bessel beam are focused into a MMF, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measurement results of the depth of field for the regenerated Gaussian focus and quasi-Bessel beam based on DOPC. (a), (b) Normalized intensity distribution in the yz plane of the foci as shown in Figs. 2(a2) and 2(b2). (c) Intensity profiles along the z-axis of the Figs. 2(a) and 2(b).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Results for the regeneration of vortex beams through a MMF based on DOPC. (a1), (b1) Regenerated vortex beams with TCs of 1 and 2, respectively. (a2), (b2) Astigmatic transformation patterns corresponding to (a1) and (b1). (a3), (b3) Astigmatic transformation patterns of the vortex beams with TCs of 1 and 2, produced from the photomask, respectively.