Abstract

Orbital angular momentum beam excitation through direct phase-matched coupling is experimentally demonstrated using an all-fiber weakly fused mode selective coupler consisting of a single-mode fiber and a ring-core fiber. Experimental results showing the excited OAM mode purity of up to 75% measured through the standard ring technique not only demonstrate the proof of concept but also provide a baseline for further improvement.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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L. Yan, P. Gregg, E. Karimi, A. Rubano, L. Marrucci, R. Boyd, and S. Ramachandran, Optica 2, 900 (2015).
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S. Pidishety, M. I. Abdul Khudus, P. Gregg, S. Ramachandran, B. Srinivasan, and G. Brambilla, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2016), paper STu1F.2.

S. Pidishety, S. Pachava, P. Gregg, A. McGuffin, S. Ramachandran, G. Brambilla, and B. Srinivasan, in 13th International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W2G.4.

Grier, D. G.

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133901 (2003).
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Heckenberg, N. R.

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Jung, Y.

R. Ismaeel, T. Lee, B. Oduro, Y. Jung, and G. Brambilla, Opt. Express 22, 11610 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. S. Eznaveh, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. Antonio-Lopez, Y. Jung, K. Shi, B. C. Thomsen, D. Richardson, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu3J.3.

Karimi, E.

Kim, B. Y.

Kim, Y. K.

Krishna Inavalli, V. V. G.

V. V. G. Krishna Inavalli and N. K. Viswanathan, Opt. Commun. 283, 861 (2010).
[Crossref]

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M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
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Kristensen, P.

Kumar, V.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, T.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Z. S. Eznaveh, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. Antonio-Lopez, Y. Jung, K. Shi, B. C. Thomsen, D. Richardson, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu3J.3.

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
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Marrucci, L.

McDuff, R.

McGuffin, A.

S. Pidishety, S. Pachava, P. Gregg, A. McGuffin, S. Ramachandran, G. Brambilla, and B. Srinivasan, in 13th International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W2G.4.

Mirhosseini, M.

Moreno, I.

A. Cofré, P. García-Martínez, A. Vargas, and I. Moreno, Eur. J. Phys. 38, 14005 (2017).
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Morishita, K.

Oduro, B.

Pachava, S.

S. Pidishety, S. Pachava, P. Gregg, A. McGuffin, S. Ramachandran, G. Brambilla, and B. Srinivasan, in 13th International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W2G.4.

Padgett, M. J.

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
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Park, K. J.

Petrov, D. V.

J. W. R. Tabosa and D. V. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4967 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pidishety, S.

S. Pidishety, B. Srinivasan, and G. Brambilla, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 31 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Pidishety and N. K. Viswanathan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 806 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Pidishety, V. Kumar, and N. K. Viswanathan, Opt. Lett. 37, 4233 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Pidishety, S. Pachava, P. Gregg, A. McGuffin, S. Ramachandran, G. Brambilla, and B. Srinivasan, in 13th International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W2G.4.

S. Pidishety, M. I. Abdul Khudus, P. Gregg, S. Ramachandran, B. Srinivasan, and G. Brambilla, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2016), paper STu1F.2.

Ramachandran, S.

L. Yan, P. Gregg, E. Karimi, A. Rubano, L. Marrucci, R. Boyd, and S. Ramachandran, Optica 2, 900 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Gregg, M. Mirhosseini, A. Rubano, L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, R. W. Boyd, and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Lett. 40, 1729 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Lett. 37, 2451 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ramachandran, P. Kristensen, and M. F. Yan, Opt. Lett. 34, 2525 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Pidishety, S. Pachava, P. Gregg, A. McGuffin, S. Ramachandran, G. Brambilla, and B. Srinivasan, in 13th International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W2G.4.

S. Pidishety, M. I. Abdul Khudus, P. Gregg, S. Ramachandran, B. Srinivasan, and G. Brambilla, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2016), paper STu1F.2.

Ren, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D.

Z. S. Eznaveh, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. Antonio-Lopez, Y. Jung, K. Shi, B. C. Thomsen, D. Richardson, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu3J.3.

Rubano, A.

Shi, K.

Z. S. Eznaveh, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. Antonio-Lopez, Y. Jung, K. Shi, B. C. Thomsen, D. Richardson, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu3J.3.

Smith, C. P.

Song, K. Y.

Srinivasan, B.

S. Pidishety, B. Srinivasan, and G. Brambilla, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 31 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Pidishety, M. I. Abdul Khudus, P. Gregg, S. Ramachandran, B. Srinivasan, and G. Brambilla, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2016), paper STu1F.2.

S. Pidishety, S. Pachava, P. Gregg, A. McGuffin, S. Ramachandran, G. Brambilla, and B. Srinivasan, in 13th International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W2G.4.

Tabosa, J. W. R.

J. W. R. Tabosa and D. V. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4967 (1999).
[Crossref]

Thomsen, B. C.

Z. S. Eznaveh, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. Antonio-Lopez, Y. Jung, K. Shi, B. C. Thomsen, D. Richardson, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu3J.3.

Tur, M.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[Crossref]

van der Veen, H. E. L. O.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 96, 123 (1993).
[Crossref]

Vargas, A.

A. Cofré, P. García-Martínez, A. Vargas, and I. Moreno, Eur. J. Phys. 38, 14005 (2017).
[Crossref]

Viswanathan, N. K.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[Crossref]

White, A. G.

Willner, A. E.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 96, 123 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yamazaki, K.

Yan, L.

Yan, M. F.

Yan, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, A. M.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics (Hardcover Oxford University, 2006).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics (Hardcover Oxford University, 2006).

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zacarias, J. C. A.

Z. S. Eznaveh, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. Antonio-Lopez, Y. Jung, K. Shi, B. C. Thomsen, D. Richardson, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu3J.3.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Eur. J. Phys. (1)

A. Cofré, P. García-Martínez, A. Vargas, and I. Moreno, Eur. J. Phys. 38, 14005 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Pidishety, B. Srinivasan, and G. Brambilla, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 31 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. (1)

G. Brambilla, J. Opt. 12, 43001 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 96, 123 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[Crossref]

V. V. G. Krishna Inavalli and N. K. Viswanathan, Opt. Commun. 283, 861 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

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Z. S. Eznaveh, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. Antonio-Lopez, Y. Jung, K. Shi, B. C. Thomsen, D. Richardson, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu3J.3.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Experimentally measured refractive index profile of the ring-core fiber at the wavelength λ=1550  nm. The refractive index of silica is used as a reference. (b) Effective index (neff) versus wavelength (simulations).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Approximate cross section of the coupler showing the tapered cladding diameter of SMF dSMF2.25  μm and of the ring-core fiber dringcore3.58  μm. (b) Effective index (neff) of the HE11 mode in the SMF and different modes (TE01, OAM |l|=1 and TM01) in the ring-core fiber mapped as a function of the fiber cladding diameter.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup for characterizing the generated OAM beam: the solid lines are the propagation path of light through the fiber; the dashed lines are those of light through free space. PC, polarization controller; L1 and L2, collimating lens; FBS, free-space beam splitter; QWP, quarter-wave plate; and PBD, polarization beam displacer.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Far-field image of the generated OAM beam. (b) and (c) Characteristics of spiral and fork interference patterns of OAM beam and Gaussian reference, respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Purity measurement of the OAM beam: modal content (HE11, OAM |l|=1 and TE01, TM01) of ring-core fiber output. Inset: simulation and experimental images of orthogonal circular polarization projections of OAM mode.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Power of coupled OAM mode as a function of wavelength: the experimental values and the corresponding fit through simulations.

Equations (3)

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OAM11±=HE21even±iHE21odd=E(r){σ±exp(±ilϕ)},
κ=ω22β2c2E1(x,y)δn2(x,y)E2*(x,y)dxdy|E2(x,y)|2dxdy,
[cos(κL)isin(κL)isin(κL)cos(κL)][100eiθ][cos(κL)isin(κL)isin(κL)cos(κL)],

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