Abstract

A novel mode selecting switch (MSS) is experimentally demonstrated for on-chip mode-division multiplexing (MDM) optical interconnects. The MSS consists of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with tapered multi-mode interference couplers and TiN thermo-optic phase shifters for conversion and switching between the optical data encoded on the fundamental and first-order quasi-transverse electric (TE) modes. The C-band MSS exhibits a >25  dB switching extinction ratio and < −12 dB crosstalk. We validate the dynamic switching with a 25.8 kHz gating signal measuring switching times for both TE0 and TE1 modes of <10.9  μs. All channels exhibit less than 1.7 dB power penalty at a 1012 bit error rate, while switching the non-return-to-zero PRBS-31 data signals at 10  Gb/s.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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[Crossref]

L. Lu, S. Zhao, L. Zhou, D. Li, Z. Li, M. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, Opt. Express 24, 9295 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Ye, Y. Yu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 24, 528 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, Y. Yu, G. Chen, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 24, 21722 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Guo, D. Lu, R. Zhang, H. Wang, and C. Ji, IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1 (2016).
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L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
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2013 (1)

2008 (1)

J. Creemer, D. Briand, H. Zandbergen, W. van der Vlist, C. de Boer, N. de Rooij, and P. Sarro, Sens. Actuators A 148, 416 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

L.-W. Chung, S.-L. Lee, and Y.-J. Lin, Opt. Express 14, 8753 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2287 (2006).
[Crossref]

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L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[Crossref]

Aalto, T.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2287 (2006).
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Banan, B.

C. Williams, B. Banan, G. Cowan, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 473 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bergmen, K.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Briand, D.

J. Creemer, D. Briand, H. Zandbergen, W. van der Vlist, C. de Boer, N. de Rooij, and P. Sarro, Sens. Actuators A 148, 416 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chee, E. K. S.

Chen, C. P.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

Chen, J.

Chung, L.-W.

Cowan, G.

C. Williams, B. Banan, G. Cowan, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 473 (2016).
[Crossref]

Creemer, J.

J. Creemer, D. Briand, H. Zandbergen, W. van der Vlist, C. de Boer, N. de Rooij, and P. Sarro, Sens. Actuators A 148, 416 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

D. Dai, J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 572 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, K. Xu, D. Dai, and H. K. Tsang, 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

de Boer, C.

J. Creemer, D. Briand, H. Zandbergen, W. van der Vlist, C. de Boer, N. de Rooij, and P. Sarro, Sens. Actuators A 148, 416 (2008).
[Crossref]

de Rooij, N.

J. Creemer, D. Briand, H. Zandbergen, W. van der Vlist, C. de Boer, N. de Rooij, and P. Sarro, Sens. Actuators A 148, 416 (2008).
[Crossref]

Deng, L.

H. Xiao, L. Deng, G. Zhao, Z. Liu, Y. Meng, X. Guo, G. Liu, S. Liu, J. Ding, and Y. Tian, J. Opt. 19, 025802 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

H. Xiao, L. Deng, G. Zhao, Z. Liu, Y. Meng, X. Guo, G. Liu, S. Liu, J. Ding, and Y. Tian, J. Opt. 19, 025802 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gabrielli, L. H.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, F.

F. Guo, D. Lu, R. Zhang, H. Wang, and C. Ji, IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

H. Xiao, L. Deng, G. Zhao, Z. Liu, Y. Meng, X. Guo, G. Liu, S. Liu, J. Ding, and Y. Tian, J. Opt. 19, 025802 (2017).
[Crossref]

Harjanne, M.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2287 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ji, C.

F. Guo, D. Lu, R. Zhang, H. Wang, and C. Ji, IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kapulainen, M.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2287 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-L.

Li, C.

Li, D.

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liboiron-Ladouceur, O.

C. Williams, B. Banan, G. Cowan, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 473 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-J.

Lipson, M.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

H. Xiao, L. Deng, G. Zhao, Z. Liu, Y. Meng, X. Guo, G. Liu, S. Liu, J. Ding, and Y. Tian, J. Opt. 19, 025802 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

H. Xiao, L. Deng, G. Zhao, Z. Liu, Y. Meng, X. Guo, G. Liu, S. Liu, J. Ding, and Y. Tian, J. Opt. 19, 025802 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

H. Xiao, L. Deng, G. Zhao, Z. Liu, Y. Meng, X. Guo, G. Liu, S. Liu, J. Ding, and Y. Tian, J. Opt. 19, 025802 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.

Lu, D.

F. Guo, D. Lu, R. Zhang, H. Wang, and C. Ji, IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, L.

Luo, L.-W.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Meng, Y.

H. Xiao, L. Deng, G. Zhao, Z. Liu, Y. Meng, X. Guo, G. Liu, S. Liu, J. Ding, and Y. Tian, J. Opt. 19, 025802 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ophir, N.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[Crossref]

Poitras, C. B.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sarro, P.

J. Creemer, D. Briand, H. Zandbergen, W. van der Vlist, C. de Boer, N. de Rooij, and P. Sarro, Sens. Actuators A 148, 416 (2008).
[Crossref]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[Crossref]

Solehmainen, K.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2287 (2006).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

Sun, C.

Tian, Y.

H. Xiao, L. Deng, G. Zhao, Z. Liu, Y. Meng, X. Guo, G. Liu, S. Liu, J. Ding, and Y. Tian, J. Opt. 19, 025802 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

X. Wu, K. Xu, D. Dai, and H. K. Tsang, 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

van der Vlist, W.

J. Creemer, D. Briand, H. Zandbergen, W. van der Vlist, C. de Boer, N. de Rooij, and P. Sarro, Sens. Actuators A 148, 416 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

F. Guo, D. Lu, R. Zhang, H. Wang, and C. Ji, IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

Williams, C.

C. Williams, B. Banan, G. Cowan, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 473 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, K. Xu, D. Dai, and H. K. Tsang, 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

Xiao, H.

H. Xiao, L. Deng, G. Zhao, Z. Liu, Y. Meng, X. Guo, G. Liu, S. Liu, J. Ding, and Y. Tian, J. Opt. 19, 025802 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, K.

X. Wu, K. Xu, D. Dai, and H. K. Tsang, 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

Ye, M.

Yu, Y.

Zandbergen, H.

J. Creemer, D. Briand, H. Zandbergen, W. van der Vlist, C. de Boer, N. de Rooij, and P. Sarro, Sens. Actuators A 148, 416 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, R.

F. Guo, D. Lu, R. Zhang, H. Wang, and C. Ji, IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, G.

H. Xiao, L. Deng, G. Zhao, Z. Liu, Y. Meng, X. Guo, G. Liu, S. Liu, J. Ding, and Y. Tian, J. Opt. 19, 025802 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S.

Zhou, H.

Zhou, L.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Williams, B. Banan, G. Cowan, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 473 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

F. Guo, D. Lu, R. Zhang, H. Wang, and C. Ji, IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2287 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 572 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

H. Xiao, L. Deng, G. Zhao, Z. Liu, Y. Meng, X. Guo, G. Liu, S. Liu, J. Ding, and Y. Tian, J. Opt. 19, 025802 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Sens. Actuators A (1)

J. Creemer, D. Briand, H. Zandbergen, W. van der Vlist, C. de Boer, N. de Rooij, and P. Sarro, Sens. Actuators A 148, 416 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

X. Wu, K. Xu, D. Dai, and H. K. Tsang, 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) (2016), pp. 1–3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Conceptual diagram of the 1 × 3 MSS, (b) cross section of the waveguide showing the dimensions for single-mode (0.5 μm) and multi-mode (1.0 μm) propagation (figure not drawn to scale), (c) simulated effective refractive indices for the first four TE modes, (d) schematic of the MSS and corresponding electric field propagation in respective MMIs under different phase-shifter biases, (e) an optical microscope image of the fabricated MSS.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental test-bed for the MSS characterization. The blue and black solid lines represent the optical and electrical signals, respectively. The black dotted line represents the clock signal. EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; PC, polarization controller; DUT, device under test; VOA, variable optical attenuator; PD, photodetector; RTO, real-time oscilloscope; DCA, digital communication analyzer; ED, error detector.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized transmission as a function of (a) PS-1 and (b) PS-2 bias voltages. Normalized transmission as a function of the wavelengths in the (c) mid, (d) up, and (e) down output ports.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Dynamic mode switching between TE0 (mid output port) and TE1 (up and down output ports) modes. (b) Eye diagrams in the mid, up, and down output ports recorded for 10    Gb / s PRBS-31 optical data. (c) BER as a function of average received optical power at the PD in a B2B configuration with respect to the mid output ports and in all three output ports while switching.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Experimental Results of the MSS at 1563 nm

Equations (1)

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L π = π β 0 β 1 = 4 n eff W m 2 3 λ 0 ,