Abstract

We experimentally insert a flexible number of electro-optical (EO) comb lines into a Kerr frequency comb via EO modulation and demonstrate the use of combined Kerr and EO combs as light sources in coherent communications. The number of EO lines inserted into the Kerr comb can be varied by changing the modulation frequency. Additionally, the inserted EO comb is found to have similar coherence to that of the Kerr comb, as indicated by their linewidths. The high coherence of both the Kerr and EO combs has further been demonstrated in a communication experiment in which the comb lines are encoded with 10 Gbaud quadrature phase-shift-keyed signals. The increased number of comb lines after EO modulation indicates the possibility of obtaining more data channels in optical communications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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C. Bao, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 163901 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. Pfeiffer, M. Gorodetsky, and T. Kippenberg, Science 351, 357 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Huang, J. Yang, M. Yu, B. H. McGuyer, D.-L. Kwong, T. Zelevinsky, and C. W. Wong, Sci. Adv. 2, e1501489 (2016).
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X. Xue, Y. Xuan, C. Wang, P.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, B. Niu, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Express 24, 687 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Joshi, J. K. Jang, K. Luke, X. Ji, S. A. Miller, A. Klenner, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 41, 2565 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, P. Liao, A. Kordts, M. Karpov, M. H. Pfeiffer, L. Zhang, Y. Yan, G. Xie, Y. Cao, A. Almaiman, M. Ziyadi, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, S. R. Wilkinson, M. Tur, M. M. Fejer, T. J. Kippenberg, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 41, 3876 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. Jost, C. Wang, N. Kondratiev, M. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 8, 145 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 263901 (2012).
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2010 (1)

2007 (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. A 71, 033804 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

L. Richter, H. Mandelberg, M. Kruger, and P. McGrath, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 2070 (1986).
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Agarwal, A. M.

Alishahi, F.

C. Bao, P. Liao, Y. Cao, G. Xie, A. Kordts, L. Zhang, M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Liu, M. Ziyadi, Y. Yan, A. Almainman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, F. Alishahi, T. J. Kippenberg, and A. E. Willner, Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper FTh5G.2.

Almaiman, A.

Almainman, A.

C. Bao, P. Liao, Y. Cao, G. Xie, A. Kordts, L. Zhang, M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Liu, M. Ziyadi, Y. Yan, A. Almainman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, F. Alishahi, T. J. Kippenberg, and A. E. Willner, Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper FTh5G.2.

Anderson, M. H.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nature 546, 274 (2017).
[Crossref]

Andrekson, P. A.

A. Fülöp, M. Mazur, A. Lorences-Riesgo, T. A. Eriksson, P.-H. Wang, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, P. A. Andrekson, and A. M. Weiner, “Long-haul coherent communications using microresonator-based frequency combs,” arXiv:1701.08569 (2017).

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

C. Bao, Y. Xuan, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 42, 2519 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, P. Liao, A. Kordts, M. Karpov, M. H. Pfeiffer, L. Zhang, Y. Yan, G. Xie, Y. Cao, A. Almaiman, M. Ziyadi, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, S. R. Wilkinson, M. Tur, M. M. Fejer, T. J. Kippenberg, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 41, 3876 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 163901 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, L. Zhang, A. Matsko, Y. Yan, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, L. Maleki, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 39, 6126 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, P. Liao, Y. Cao, G. Xie, A. Kordts, L. Zhang, M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Liu, M. Ziyadi, Y. Yan, A. Almainman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, F. Alishahi, T. J. Kippenberg, and A. E. Willner, Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper FTh5G.2.

Brasch, V.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nature 546, 274 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. Pfeiffer, M. Gorodetsky, and T. Kippenberg, Science 351, 357 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. Jost, C. Wang, N. Kondratiev, M. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 8, 145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Briles, T. C.

Cao, Y.

C. Bao, P. Liao, A. Kordts, M. Karpov, M. H. Pfeiffer, L. Zhang, Y. Yan, G. Xie, Y. Cao, A. Almaiman, M. Ziyadi, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, S. R. Wilkinson, M. Tur, M. M. Fejer, T. J. Kippenberg, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 41, 3876 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, P. Liao, Y. Cao, G. Xie, A. Kordts, L. Zhang, M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Liu, M. Ziyadi, Y. Yan, A. Almainman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, F. Alishahi, T. J. Kippenberg, and A. E. Willner, Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper FTh5G.2.

Chitgarha, M. R.

Coen, S.

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 263901 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

Drake, T. E.

Eriksson, T. A.

A. Fülöp, M. Mazur, A. Lorences-Riesgo, T. A. Eriksson, P.-H. Wang, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, P. A. Andrekson, and A. M. Weiner, “Long-haul coherent communications using microresonator-based frequency combs,” arXiv:1701.08569 (2017).

Erkintalo, M.

Fejer, M. M.

Freude, W.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nature 546, 274 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fülöp, A.

A. Fülöp, M. Mazur, A. Lorences-Riesgo, T. A. Eriksson, P.-H. Wang, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, P. A. Andrekson, and A. M. Weiner, “Long-haul coherent communications using microresonator-based frequency combs,” arXiv:1701.08569 (2017).

Gaeta, A. L.

C. Joshi, J. K. Jang, K. Luke, X. Ji, S. A. Miller, A. Klenner, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 41, 2565 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Yu, Y. Okawachi, A. G. Griffith, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Microresonator-based high-resolution gas spectroscopy,” arXiv:1707.04322 (2017).

Geiselmann, M.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. Pfeiffer, M. Gorodetsky, and T. Kippenberg, Science 351, 357 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. Pfeiffer, M. Gorodetsky, and T. Kippenberg, Science 351, 357 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. Jost, C. Wang, N. Kondratiev, M. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 8, 145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Griffith, A. G.

M. Yu, Y. Okawachi, A. G. Griffith, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Microresonator-based high-resolution gas spectroscopy,” arXiv:1707.04322 (2017).

Guo, H.

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Herkommer, C.

Herr, T.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. Pfeiffer, M. Gorodetsky, and T. Kippenberg, Science 351, 357 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. Jost, C. Wang, N. Kondratiev, M. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 8, 145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.-W.

S.-W. Huang, J. Yang, M. Yu, B. H. McGuyer, D.-L. Kwong, T. Zelevinsky, and C. W. Wong, Sci. Adv. 2, e1501489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. A 71, 033804 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ilic, B. R.

Jang, J. K.

Jaramillo-Villegas, J. A.

C. Bao, Y. Xuan, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 42, 2519 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 163901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ji, X.

Joshi, C.

Jost, J.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. Jost, C. Wang, N. Kondratiev, M. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 8, 145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karpov, M.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nature 546, 274 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, Optica 4, 684 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, P. Liao, A. Kordts, M. Karpov, M. H. Pfeiffer, L. Zhang, Y. Yan, G. Xie, Y. Cao, A. Almaiman, M. Ziyadi, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, S. R. Wilkinson, M. Tur, M. M. Fejer, T. J. Kippenberg, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 41, 3876 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, P. Liao, Y. Cao, G. Xie, A. Kordts, L. Zhang, M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Liu, M. Ziyadi, Y. Yan, A. Almainman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, F. Alishahi, T. J. Kippenberg, and A. E. Willner, Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper FTh5G.2.

Kemal, J. N.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nature 546, 274 (2017).
[Crossref]

Khaleghi, S.

Kimerling, L. C.

Kippenberg, T.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. Pfeiffer, M. Gorodetsky, and T. Kippenberg, Science 351, 357 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nature 546, 274 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, Optica 4, 684 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, P. Liao, A. Kordts, M. Karpov, M. H. Pfeiffer, L. Zhang, Y. Yan, G. Xie, Y. Cao, A. Almaiman, M. Ziyadi, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, S. R. Wilkinson, M. Tur, M. M. Fejer, T. J. Kippenberg, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 41, 3876 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. Jost, C. Wang, N. Kondratiev, M. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 8, 145 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, P. Liao, Y. Cao, G. Xie, A. Kordts, L. Zhang, M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Liu, M. Ziyadi, Y. Yan, A. Almainman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, F. Alishahi, T. J. Kippenberg, and A. E. Willner, Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper FTh5G.2.

Klenner, A.

Kondratiev, N.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. Jost, C. Wang, N. Kondratiev, M. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 8, 145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nature 546, 274 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kordts, A.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nature 546, 274 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, P. Liao, A. Kordts, M. Karpov, M. H. Pfeiffer, L. Zhang, Y. Yan, G. Xie, Y. Cao, A. Almaiman, M. Ziyadi, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, S. R. Wilkinson, M. Tur, M. M. Fejer, T. J. Kippenberg, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 41, 3876 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, P. Liao, Y. Cao, G. Xie, A. Kordts, L. Zhang, M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Liu, M. Ziyadi, Y. Yan, A. Almainman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, F. Alishahi, T. J. Kippenberg, and A. E. Willner, Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper FTh5G.2.

Kruger, M.

L. Richter, H. Mandelberg, M. Kruger, and P. McGrath, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 2070 (1986).
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Kwong, D.-L.

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C. Bao, P. Liao, A. Kordts, M. Karpov, M. H. Pfeiffer, L. Zhang, Y. Yan, G. Xie, Y. Cao, A. Almaiman, M. Ziyadi, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, S. R. Wilkinson, M. Tur, M. M. Fejer, T. J. Kippenberg, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 41, 3876 (2016).
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Zhao, Z.

Ziyadi, M.

C. Bao, P. Liao, A. Kordts, M. Karpov, M. H. Pfeiffer, L. Zhang, Y. Yan, G. Xie, Y. Cao, A. Almaiman, M. Ziyadi, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, S. R. Wilkinson, M. Tur, M. M. Fejer, T. J. Kippenberg, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 41, 3876 (2016).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. Jost, C. Wang, N. Kondratiev, M. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 8, 145 (2013).
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T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Optica (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. A 71, 033804 (2005).
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C. Bao, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 163901 (2016).
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Sci. Adv. (1)

S.-W. Huang, J. Yang, M. Yu, B. H. McGuyer, D.-L. Kwong, T. Zelevinsky, and C. W. Wong, Sci. Adv. 2, e1501489 (2016).
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Science (2)

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M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, Science 354, 600 (2016).
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Other (3)

M. Yu, Y. Okawachi, A. G. Griffith, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Microresonator-based high-resolution gas spectroscopy,” arXiv:1707.04322 (2017).

A. Fülöp, M. Mazur, A. Lorences-Riesgo, T. A. Eriksson, P.-H. Wang, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, P. A. Andrekson, and A. M. Weiner, “Long-haul coherent communications using microresonator-based frequency combs,” arXiv:1701.08569 (2017).

C. Bao, P. Liao, Y. Cao, G. Xie, A. Kordts, L. Zhang, M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Liu, M. Ziyadi, Y. Yan, A. Almainman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, F. Alishahi, T. J. Kippenberg, and A. E. Willner, Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper FTh5G.2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Conceptual diagram of an EO comb insertion into a Kerr comb using EO modulation. Each EO sideband is generated from an adjacent Kerr comb line. Both the Kerr and EO combs are then modulated with data. (b) Experimental setup for inserting the EO comb lines into a Kerr frequency comb and for the data modulation. Kerr comb is generated from a silicon nitride microresonator. ECDL, external-cavity diode laser; AFG, arbitrary function generator; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; PC, polarization controller; FBG, fiber Bragg grating; TOF, tunable optical filter; IM, intensity modulator; PM, phase modulator; PS, RF phase shifter; ESA, electronic spectrum analyzer; I/Q, in-phase/quadrature; and QPSK, quadrature phase-shift-keyed.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Optical spectrum of a Kerr frequency comb in a single-soliton state (resolution bandwidth [RBW]=0.1  nm). The inset shows the five selected Kerr comb lines in the 1543–1551 nm range. (b) Repetition rate beat note of the soliton comb in (a) (RBW=1  kHz).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical spectra of combined Kerr and EO combs after EO modulation when the modulation frequency fe is (a) 1/7, (b) 1/8, and (c) 1/9 of the Kerr comb spacing (RBW=0.1  nm). The corresponding RF beat notes are shown on the right (RBW=1  kHz).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Experimental setup for the linewidth measurement based on the delayed self-heterodyne method. AOM, acoustic optical modulator; and DPO, digital phosphor oscilloscope. (b) Measured linewidths versus different wavelengths. Black triangle dots correspond to the Kerr comb lines without EO modulation. The linewidth measurements for the Kerr comb line of 1547.24 nm, with and without EO modulation, are shown in (c).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Optical spectra of the channels in the coherent receiver when multiple comb lines in the gray-dashed boxes of Fig. 3 are modulated with 10 Gbaud QPSK data (RBW=0.1  nm). The spectrum of the channel when the Kerr comb line at 1548.76 nm is directly modulated with data is also shown. (b) Measured EVMs versus different comb lines for different modulation frequencies of the modulator. As a comparison, the EVM of the Kerr comb line directly modulated with the data is also shown.

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