Abstract

This study investigates an all-optical scheme based on period-one (P1) nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers, which regenerates the microwave carrier of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing radio-over-fiber (OFDM-RoF) signal and uses it as a microwave local oscillator for coherent detection. Through the injection locking established between the OFDM-RoF signal and the P1 dynamics, frequency synchronization with highly preserved phase quality is inherently achieved between the recovered microwave carrier and the microwave carrier of the OFDM-RoF signal. A bit-error ratio down to 1.9×109 is achieved accordingly using the proposed scheme for coherent detection of a 32-GHz OFDM-RoF signal carrying 4  Gb/s 16-quadrature amplitude modulation data. No electronic microwave generators or electronic phase-locked loops are thus required. The proposed system can be operated up to at least 100 GHz and can be self-adapted to certain changes in the operating microwave frequency.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Yu, G. K. Chang, Z. Jia, A. Chowdhury, M. F. Huang, H. C. Chien, Y. T. Hsueh, W. Jian, C. Liu, and Z. Dong, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2376 (2010).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  32. J. P. Zhuang and S. C. Chan, Opt. Lett. 38, 344 (2013).
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  33. B. Koch, R. Noe, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, and K. Puntsri, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 613 (2010).
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2017 (2)

C. T. Lin, S. C. Chiang, C. H. Li, H. T. Huang, C. H. Lin, and B. J. Lin, Opt. Lett. 42, 207 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, X. Xiao, J. Yu, X. Li, and F. Li, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 51 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (5)

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 32, 1065 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, J. Wang, L. Cheng, M. Zhu, and G. K. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 3452 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Pang, A. Lebedev, J. J. V. Olmos, and I. T. Monroy, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4585 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Kang, J. C. Chien, and A. M. Niknejad, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62, 2390 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, M. AlMulla, N. G. Usechak, and V. Kovanis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 023901 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (3)

A. Quirce and A. Valle, Opt. Express 20, 13390 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chu, S. L. Lin, S. C. Chan, and S. K. Hwang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1389 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Donati and S. K. Hwang, Prog. Quantum Electron. 36, 293 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

S. K. Hwang, S. C. Chan, S. C. Hsieh, and C. Y. Li, Opt. Commun. 284, 3581 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Yuan and F. Y. Lin, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 644 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

B. Koch, R. Noe, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, and K. Puntsri, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 613 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. C. Chan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 421 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, G. K. Chang, Z. Jia, A. Chowdhury, M. F. Huang, H. C. Chien, Y. T. Hsueh, W. Jian, C. Liu, and Z. Dong, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2376 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

S. C. Chan, S. K. Hwang, and J. M. Liu, Opt. Lett. 31, 2254 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. K. Hwang and D. H. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061120 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. K. Hwang, J. M. Liu, and J. K. White, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 974 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1025 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, and K. Atsuki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1196 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. Kaszubowska, L. P. Barry, and P. Anandarajah, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1599 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

T. B. Simpson and F. Doft, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1476 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

B. Krauskopf, N. Tollenaar, and D. Lenstra, Opt. Commun. 156, 158 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9, 765 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

T. Erneux, V. Kovanis, A. Gavrielides, and P. M. Alsing, Phys. Rev. A 53, 4372 (1996).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

R. Adler, Proc. IRE 34, 351 (1946).
[Crossref]

Adler, R.

R. Adler, Proc. IRE 34, 351 (1946).
[Crossref]

AlMulla, M.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, M. AlMulla, N. G. Usechak, and V. Kovanis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 023901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alsing, P. M.

T. Erneux, V. Kovanis, A. Gavrielides, and P. M. Alsing, Phys. Rev. A 53, 4372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Anandarajah, P.

A. Kaszubowska, L. P. Barry, and P. Anandarajah, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1599 (2002).
[Crossref]

Andrews, J. G.

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 32, 1065 (2014).
[Crossref]

Atsuki, K.

A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, and K. Atsuki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1196 (2003).
[Crossref]

Barry, L. P.

A. Kaszubowska, L. P. Barry, and P. Anandarajah, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1599 (2002).
[Crossref]

Buzzi, S.

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 32, 1065 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chan, S. C.

J. P. Zhuang and S. C. Chan, Opt. Lett. 38, 344 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chu, S. L. Lin, S. C. Chan, and S. K. Hwang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1389 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. K. Hwang, S. C. Chan, S. C. Hsieh, and C. Y. Li, Opt. Commun. 284, 3581 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. C. Chan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 421 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Cui, X. Fu, and S. C. Chan, Opt. Lett. 34, 3821 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. C. Chan, S. K. Hwang, and J. M. Liu, Opt. Express 15, 14921 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. C. Chan, S. K. Hwang, and J. M. Liu, Opt. Lett. 31, 2254 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1025 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chang, G. K.

Chen, H. F.

Chen, M.

M. Chen, X. Xiao, J. Yu, X. Li, and F. Li, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 51 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, L.

Chiang, S. C.

Chien, H. C.

Chien, J. C.

X. Kang, J. C. Chien, and A. M. Niknejad, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62, 2390 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 32, 1065 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, A.

Chu, C. H.

Y. H. Hung, C. H. Chu, and S. K. Hwang, Opt. Lett. 38, 1482 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chu, S. L. Lin, S. C. Chan, and S. K. Hwang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1389 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cui, C.

Doft, F.

T. B. Simpson and F. Doft, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1476 (1999).
[Crossref]

Donati, S.

S. Donati and S. K. Hwang, Prog. Quantum Electron. 36, 293 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dong, Z.

Erneux, T.

T. Erneux, V. Kovanis, A. Gavrielides, and P. M. Alsing, Phys. Rev. A 53, 4372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Filsinger, V.

B. Koch, R. Noe, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, and K. Puntsri, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 613 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

Gavrielides, A.

T. Erneux, V. Kovanis, A. Gavrielides, and P. M. Alsing, Phys. Rev. A 53, 4372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hanly, S. V.

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 32, 1065 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ho, C. H.

Hsieh, S. C.

S. K. Hwang, S. C. Chan, S. C. Hsieh, and C. Y. Li, Opt. Commun. 284, 3581 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hsueh, Y. T.

Huang, H. T.

Huang, K. F.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9, 765 (1997).
[Crossref]

Huang, M. F.

Hung, Y. H.

Hwang, S. K.

Y. H. Hung and S. K. Hwang, Opt. Lett. 38, 3355 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Hung, C. H. Chu, and S. K. Hwang, Opt. Lett. 38, 1482 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chu, S. L. Lin, S. C. Chan, and S. K. Hwang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1389 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Donati and S. K. Hwang, Prog. Quantum Electron. 36, 293 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. K. Hwang, S. C. Chan, S. C. Hsieh, and C. Y. Li, Opt. Commun. 284, 3581 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. K. Hwang, H. F. Chen, and C. Y. Lin, Opt. Lett. 34, 812 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. C. Chan, S. K. Hwang, and J. M. Liu, Opt. Express 15, 14921 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. C. Chan, S. K. Hwang, and J. M. Liu, Opt. Lett. 31, 2254 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. K. Hwang and D. H. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061120 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. K. Hwang, J. M. Liu, and J. K. White, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 974 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jia, Z.

Jian, W.

Kang, X.

X. Kang, J. C. Chien, and A. M. Niknejad, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62, 2390 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kaszubowska, A.

A. Kaszubowska, L. P. Barry, and P. Anandarajah, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1599 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kawashima, K.

A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, and K. Atsuki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1196 (2003).
[Crossref]

Koch, B.

B. Koch, R. Noe, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, and K. Puntsri, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 613 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kovanis, V.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, M. AlMulla, N. G. Usechak, and V. Kovanis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 023901 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Erneux, V. Kovanis, A. Gavrielides, and P. M. Alsing, Phys. Rev. A 53, 4372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Krauskopf, B.

B. Krauskopf, N. Tollenaar, and D. Lenstra, Opt. Commun. 156, 158 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lebedev, A.

X. Pang, A. Lebedev, J. J. V. Olmos, and I. T. Monroy, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4585 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lenstra, D.

B. Krauskopf, N. Tollenaar, and D. Lenstra, Opt. Commun. 156, 158 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, C. H.

Li, C. Y.

S. K. Hwang, S. C. Chan, S. C. Hsieh, and C. Y. Li, Opt. Commun. 284, 3581 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

M. Chen, X. Xiao, J. Yu, X. Li, and F. Li, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 51 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

M. Chen, X. Xiao, J. Yu, X. Li, and F. Li, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 51 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liang, D. H.

S. K. Hwang and D. H. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, B. J.

Lin, C. H.

Lin, C. T.

Lin, C. Y.

Lin, F. Y.

Y. S. Yuan and F. Y. Lin, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 644 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. L.

C. H. Chu, S. L. Lin, S. C. Chan, and S. K. Hwang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1389 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

Liu, J. M.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, M. AlMulla, N. G. Usechak, and V. Kovanis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 023901 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. C. Chan, S. K. Hwang, and J. M. Liu, Opt. Express 15, 14921 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. C. Chan, S. K. Hwang, and J. M. Liu, Opt. Lett. 31, 2254 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1025 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. K. Hwang, J. M. Liu, and J. K. White, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 974 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9, 765 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lozano, A.

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 32, 1065 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mirvoda, V.

B. Koch, R. Noe, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, and K. Puntsri, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 613 (2010).
[Crossref]

Monroy, I. T.

X. Pang, A. Lebedev, J. J. V. Olmos, and I. T. Monroy, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4585 (2014).
[Crossref]

Murakami, A.

A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, and K. Atsuki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1196 (2003).
[Crossref]

Niknejad, A. M.

X. Kang, J. C. Chien, and A. M. Niknejad, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62, 2390 (2014).
[Crossref]

Noe, R.

B. Koch, R. Noe, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, and K. Puntsri, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 613 (2010).
[Crossref]

Olmos, J. J. V.

X. Pang, A. Lebedev, J. J. V. Olmos, and I. T. Monroy, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4585 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pang, X.

X. Pang, A. Lebedev, J. J. V. Olmos, and I. T. Monroy, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4585 (2014).
[Crossref]

Puntsri, K.

B. Koch, R. Noe, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, and K. Puntsri, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 613 (2010).
[Crossref]

Quirce, A.

Sandel, D.

B. Koch, R. Noe, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, and K. Puntsri, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 613 (2010).
[Crossref]

Simpson, T. B.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, M. AlMulla, N. G. Usechak, and V. Kovanis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 023901 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. B. Simpson and F. Doft, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1476 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9, 765 (1997).
[Crossref]

Soong, A. C. K.

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 32, 1065 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tai, K.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9, 765 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tollenaar, N.

B. Krauskopf, N. Tollenaar, and D. Lenstra, Opt. Commun. 156, 158 (1998).
[Crossref]

Usechak, N. G.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, M. AlMulla, N. G. Usechak, and V. Kovanis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 023901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Valle, A.

Wang, J.

White, J. K.

S. K. Hwang, J. M. Liu, and J. K. White, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 974 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. F.

Xiao, X.

M. Chen, X. Xiao, J. Yu, X. Li, and F. Li, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 51 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Yuan, Y. S.

Y. S. Yuan and F. Y. Lin, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 644 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. C.

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 32, 1065 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, M.

Zhuang, J. P.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. K. Hwang and D. H. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061120 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

S. C. Chan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 421 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, and K. Atsuki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1196 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chu, S. L. Lin, S. C. Chan, and S. K. Hwang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1389 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 32, 1065 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. K. Hwang, J. M. Liu, and J. K. White, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 974 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1025 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

Y. S. Yuan and F. Y. Lin, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 644 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

B. Koch, R. Noe, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, and K. Puntsri, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 613 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, X. Xiao, J. Yu, X. Li, and F. Li, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 51 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. B. Simpson and F. Doft, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1476 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Kaszubowska, L. P. Barry, and P. Anandarajah, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1599 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

X. Kang, J. C. Chien, and A. M. Niknejad, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62, 2390 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Commun. (2)

B. Krauskopf, N. Tollenaar, and D. Lenstra, Opt. Commun. 156, 158 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. K. Hwang, S. C. Chan, S. C. Hsieh, and C. Y. Li, Opt. Commun. 284, 3581 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup. LD1, laser diode 1; PC, polarization controller; EM, external modulator; M, mixer; AWG, arbitrary waveform generator; FC, fiber coupler; PD1, photodiode 1; PA, power adjuster; C, circulator; LD2, laser diode 2; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; PD2, photodiode 2; MSA, microwave spectrum analyzer; DSP, digital signal processor.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical spectra of (a) CW input (black curve) and free-running LD2 (gray curve), (b) P1 dynamics, (c) OFDM-RoF input, and (d) OFDM-RoF output at ( ξ i , f i ) = ( 0.97 , 20    GHz ) . The x axis is relative to the free-running frequency of LD2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) and (b) Microwave spectra of OFDM microwave input and output, respectively. When measuring the linewidth, the highest resolution of 1 Hz is used. (c) Single-sideband phase noise of output (black curve) and input (gray curve) microwave carriers. (d-i) and (d-ii) Constellation diagrams of 16-QAM OFDM data retrieved using a recovered microwave carrier and an electronic microwave generator, respectively, as a microwave local oscillator. The injection condition is fixed at ( ξ i , f i ) = ( 0.97 , 20    GHz ) .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) and (b) Microwave spectra of two OFDM microwave outputs (blue curves) at f m = 31.8 and 32.2 GHz, respectively. For comparison, microwave spectra of the P1 dynamical state (gray curves) at ( ξ i , f i ) = ( 0.97 , 20    GHz ) are also shown. (c) Power (black symbols) and phase-noise variance (red symbols) of output microwave carriers as f m deviates from f 0 . (d) DCR (black symbols) and BER (red symbols) as f m deviates from f 0 .