Abstract

We demonstrate passive large-scale nanophotonic phased arrays in a CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform. Silicon nitride waveguides are used to allow for higher input power and lower phase variation compared to a silicon-based distribution network. A phased array at an infrared wavelength of 1550 nm is demonstrated with an ultra-large aperture size of 4  mm×4  mm, achieving a record small and near diffraction-limited spot size of 0.021°×0.021° with a side lobe suppression of 10 dB. A main beam power of 400 mW is observed. Using the same silicon nitride platform and phased array architecture, we also demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, the first large-aperture visible nanophotonic phased array at 635 nm with an aperture size of 0.5  mm×0.5  mm and a spot size of 0.064°×0.074°.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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Abediasl, H.

Abiri, B.

Adam, T. N.

Aflatouni, F.

Alic, N.

Althouse, C.

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ambrosius, H. P.

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
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L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869 (2011).
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Baets, R.

A. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
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L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869 (2011).
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Baiocco, C.

M. Raval, A. Yaacobi, D. Coleman, N. M. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, G. Leake, T. N. Adam, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, in IEEE Photonics Conference (2016), paper MG3.4.

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D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, Nature 495, 348 (2013).
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Binetti, P. R.

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bovington, J.

Bowers, J.

Bradley, J. D. B.

Brug, J.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, Nature 495, 348 (2013).
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Buhl, L.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869 (2011).
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Cappuzzo, M.

Chen, L.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869 (2011).
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L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, P. Dong, and Y. K. Chen, Opt. Express 19, B946 (2011).
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Chen, Y. K.

Claes, T.

A. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L.

Coldren, L. A.

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coleman, D.

M. Raval, A. Yaacobi, D. Coleman, N. M. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, G. Leake, T. N. Adam, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, in IEEE Photonics Conference (2016), paper MG3.4.

Coolbaugh, D.

Davenport, M.

DePrenger, M. J.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540B (2015).
[Crossref]

Deshpande, P.

A. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dhakal, A.

A. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Doerr, C. R.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, P. Dong, and Y. K. Chen, Opt. Express 19, B946 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

Doylend, J.

Doylend, J. K.

Du, B.

A. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dufresne, E. R.

E. R. Dufresne and D. G. Grier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1974 (1998).
[Crossref]

Earnshaw, M.

Fahrenkopf, N. M.

M. Raval, A. Yaacobi, D. Coleman, N. M. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, G. Leake, T. N. Adam, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, in IEEE Photonics Conference (2016), paper MG3.4.

Fainman, Y.

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061101 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, and Y. Fainman, Opt. Express 16, 12987 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fattal, D.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, Nature 495, 348 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, C.

Ferraro, M. S.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540B (2015).
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Feshali, A.

Fiorentino, M.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, Nature 495, 348 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fleet, E.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540B (2015).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, N. K.

Goetz, P. G.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540B (2015).
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Grier, D. G.

E. R. Dufresne and D. G. Grier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1974 (1998).
[Crossref]

Guan, B.

Guo, W.

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hajimiri, A.

Hashemi, H.

Heck, J.

Heck, M.

Helin, P.

A. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, E. S.

Huang, Y.

Hulme, J.

Hutchison, D. N.

Ikeda, K.

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061101 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, and Y. Fainman, Opt. Express 16, 12987 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jansen, R.

A. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Johansson, L. A.

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Keller, B.

Kim, W.

Klemens, F.

Kumar, R.

Leake, G.

Leyssens, K.

A. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.-Q.

Mahon, R.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540B (2015).
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Mašanovic, M. L.

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mehta, K. K.

K. K. Mehta and R. J. Ram, “Precise and diffraction-limited waveguide-to-free-space focusing gratings,” arXiv 1607.00107 (2016).

Moresco, M.

Neutens, P.

A. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, D.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540B (2015).
[Crossref]

Peng, Z.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, Nature 495, 348 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peters, J.

Peyskens, F.

A. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phare, C. T.

Philpot, W. D.

C.-K. Wang and W. D. Philpot, Remote Sens. Environ. 106, 123 (2007).
[Crossref]

Poon, J. K. S.

Pruessner, M.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540B (2015).
[Crossref]

Purnawirman,

Qin, C.

Rabinovich, W. S.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540B (2015).
[Crossref]

Ram, R. J.

K. K. Mehta and R. J. Ram, “Precise and diffraction-limited waveguide-to-free-space focusing gratings,” arXiv 1607.00107 (2016).

Raval, M.

M. Raval, A. Yaacobi, D. Coleman, N. M. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, G. Leake, T. N. Adam, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, in IEEE Photonics Conference (2016), paper MG3.4.

Rekhi, A.

Rong, H.

Rottenberg, X.

A. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sacher, W. D.

Saperstein, R. E.

Scott, R. P.

Selvaraja, S.

A. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Severi, S.

A. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Streifer, W.

Stutius, W.

Su, T.

Su, Z.

Subramanian, A.

A. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

Sun, P. C.

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tan, D. T. H.

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tran, T.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, Nature 495, 348 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van, P.

A. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vo, S.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, Nature 495, 348 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-K.

C.-K. Wang and W. D. Philpot, Remote Sens. Environ. 106, 123 (2007).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

Yaacobi, A.

A. Yaacobi, J. Sun, M. Moresco, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, Opt. Lett. 39, 4575 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Raval, A. Yaacobi, D. Coleman, N. M. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, G. Leake, T. N. Adam, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, in IEEE Photonics Conference (2016), paper MG3.4.

Yoo, S. J. B.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061101 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

A. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nature (1)

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, Nature 495, 348 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, M. Pruessner, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, D. Park, E. Fleet, and M. J. DePrenger, Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540B (2015).
[Crossref]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

C.-K. Wang and W. D. Philpot, Remote Sens. Environ. 106, 123 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E. R. Dufresne and D. G. Grier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1974 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

K. K. Mehta and R. J. Ram, “Precise and diffraction-limited waveguide-to-free-space focusing gratings,” arXiv 1607.00107 (2016).

M. Raval, A. Yaacobi, D. Coleman, N. M. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, G. Leake, T. N. Adam, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, in IEEE Photonics Conference (2016), paper MG3.4.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Photograph of the 4    mm × 4    mm IR phased array after fabrication. (b) Element factor of the antenna. (c) SEM image of the last stage of the splitter tree and antennas.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Photograph of the main beam of the array on an IR card. Main beam intensity measurement after approximately (b) 0.05 m and (c) 10 m of propagation. The insets show Fresnel propagation simulations in the same domain.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Far field of the main beam of the IR phased array on a log scale. (b) Far field intensity cuts of the phased array along the array, θ , and antenna, φ , dimensions.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Saturated visible image of the 635 nm 0.5    mm × 0.5    mm phased array. (b) Photograph of the visible phased array output on a white card.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Far field of the visible array. (b) Far field intensity cuts of the visible phased array along the array, θ , and (c) antenna, φ , dimensions.

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