Abstract

We propose wavelength converters based on modulated coupled resonators that achieve conversion by matching the modulation frequency to the frequency splitting of the supermodes of the unmodulated system. Using temporal coupled-mode theory, we show that these time-variant systems have an equivalent linear, time-invariant filter representation that simplifies the optimal engineering of design parameters for realistic systems. Applying our model to carrier plasma-dispersion modulators as an example implementation, we calculate conversion efficiencies between 5.4 and 1.7dB for intrinsic quality factors of 104106. We show that the ratio of the resonance shift to the total linewidth is the most important parameter when determining conversion efficiency. Finally, we discuss how this model can be used to design devices such as frequency shifters, widely tunable radio frequency oscillators, and frequency combs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]
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  6. X. Zeng and M. Popović, Opt. Express 22, 15837 (2014).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  13. K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1020 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Zhenshan, P. Chak, A. Bristow, H. van Driel, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, A. Smirl, and J. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 32, 828 (2007).
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    [Crossref]
  16. H. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).
  17. S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), p. 537.
  18. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
    [Crossref]
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2014 (4)

2013 (2)

M. Wade and M. Popović, Opt. Express 21, 10903 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. A. Barea, F. Vallini, P. F. Jarschel, and N. C. Frateschi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201102 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Davanço, J. Ong, A. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261104 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Hafezi, E. A. Demler, M. D. Lukin, and J. M. Taylor, Nat. Phys. 7, 907 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y. Zhenshan, P. Chak, A. Bristow, H. van Driel, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, A. Smirl, and J. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 32, 828 (2007).

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1020 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. Riaziat, G. Virshup, and J. Eckstein, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1002 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

H. Haus and W. Huang, Proc. IEEE 79, 1505 (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[Crossref]

Agha, I.

M. Davanço, J. Ong, A. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aitchison, J.

Y. Zhenshan, P. Chak, A. Bristow, H. van Driel, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, A. Smirl, and J. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 32, 828 (2007).

Assanto, G.

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1020 (1997).
[Crossref]

Assefa, S.

M. Davanço, J. Ong, A. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bafrali, R.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

Barea, L. A.

L. A. Barea, F. Vallini, P. F. Jarschel, and N. C. Frateschi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[Crossref]

Biberman, A.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. S. Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bristow, A.

Y. Zhenshan, P. Chak, A. Bristow, H. van Driel, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, A. Smirl, and J. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 32, 828 (2007).

Chak, P.

Y. Zhenshan, P. Chak, A. Bristow, H. van Driel, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, A. Smirl, and J. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 32, 828 (2007).

Chen, Y.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

M. Georgas, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. Chen, K. Nammari, J. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanovć, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p4.

Chong, J.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

Chu, S.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[Crossref]

Davanço, M.

M. Davanço, J. Ong, A. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Demler, E. A.

M. Hafezi, E. A. Demler, M. D. Lukin, and J. M. Taylor, Nat. Phys. 7, 907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eckstein, J.

M. Riaziat, G. Virshup, and J. Eckstein, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1002 (1993).
[Crossref]

Foresi, J.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[Crossref]

Frateschi, N. C.

L. A. Barea, F. Vallini, P. F. Jarschel, and N. C. Frateschi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gallo, K.

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1020 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gentry, C.

Georgas, M.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

M. Wade, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, C. Sun, R. Kumar, B. Moss, M. Georgas, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and M. Popovic, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2 E-7.

M. Georgas, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. Chen, K. Nammari, J. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanovć, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p4.

Green, W.

M. Davanço, J. Ong, A. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hafezi, M.

M. Hafezi, E. A. Demler, M. D. Lukin, and J. M. Taylor, Nat. Phys. 7, 907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Haus, H.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Haus and W. Huang, Proc. IEEE 79, 1505 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).

Hosseini, E. S.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. S. Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

H. Haus and W. Huang, Proc. IEEE 79, 1505 (1991).
[Crossref]

Iyer, R.

Y. Zhenshan, P. Chak, A. Bristow, H. van Driel, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, A. Smirl, and J. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 32, 828 (2007).

Jarschel, P. F.

L. A. Barea, F. Vallini, P. F. Jarschel, and N. C. Frateschi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kumar, R.

M. Wade, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, C. Sun, R. Kumar, B. Moss, M. Georgas, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and M. Popovic, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2 E-7.

Laine, J.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lee, R.

Lee, Y. H. D.

Leu, J.

M. Georgas, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. Chen, K. Nammari, J. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanovć, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p4.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

Lipson, M.

L. D. Tzuang, M. Soltani, Y. H. D. Lee, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 39, 1799 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), p. 537.

Little, B.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lukin, M. D.

M. Hafezi, E. A. Demler, M. D. Lukin, and J. M. Taylor, Nat. Phys. 7, 907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Manipatruni, S.

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), p. 537.

Meade, R.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

Mehta, K.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

Miller, D.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

Mookherjea, S.

M. Davanço, J. Ong, A. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Moss, B.

M. Georgas, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. Chen, K. Nammari, J. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanovć, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p4.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

M. Wade, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, C. Sun, R. Kumar, B. Moss, M. Georgas, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and M. Popovic, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2 E-7.

Nammari, K.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

M. Georgas, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. Chen, K. Nammari, J. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanovć, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p4.

Ong, J.

M. Davanço, J. Ong, A. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Orcutt, J.

M. Georgas, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. Chen, K. Nammari, J. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanovć, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p4.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

M. Wade, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, C. Sun, R. Kumar, B. Moss, M. Georgas, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and M. Popovic, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2 E-7.

Popovic, M.

C. Gentry and M. Popović, Opt. Lett. 39, 4136 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng and M. Popović, Opt. Express 22, 15837 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wade and M. Popović, Opt. Express 21, 10903 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Georgas, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. Chen, K. Nammari, J. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanovć, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p4.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

M. Wade, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, C. Sun, R. Kumar, B. Moss, M. Georgas, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and M. Popovic, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2 E-7.

Ram, R.

M. Wade, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, C. Sun, R. Kumar, B. Moss, M. Georgas, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and M. Popovic, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2 E-7.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

M. Georgas, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. Chen, K. Nammari, J. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanovć, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p4.

Riaziat, M.

M. Riaziat, G. Virshup, and J. Eckstein, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1002 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sandhu, G.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

Scherer, A.

Schmidt, B.

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), p. 537.

Shainline, J.

M. Georgas, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. Chen, K. Nammari, J. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanovć, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p4.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

M. Wade, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, C. Sun, R. Kumar, B. Moss, M. Georgas, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and M. Popovic, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2 E-7.

Shakya, J.

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), p. 537.

Shehata, A.

M. Davanço, J. Ong, A. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sipe, J.

Y. Zhenshan, P. Chak, A. Bristow, H. van Driel, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, A. Smirl, and J. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 32, 828 (2007).

Smirl, A.

Y. Zhenshan, P. Chak, A. Bristow, H. van Driel, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, A. Smirl, and J. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 32, 828 (2007).

Soltani, M.

Sorace-Agaskar, C. M.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. S. Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
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R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[Crossref]

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M. Georgas, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. Chen, K. Nammari, J. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanovć, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p4.

Srinivasan, K.

M. Davanço, J. Ong, A. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261104 (2012).
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K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1020 (1997).
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C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

Stojanovc, V.

M. Georgas, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. Chen, K. Nammari, J. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanovć, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p4.

Stojanovic, V.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

M. Wade, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, C. Sun, R. Kumar, B. Moss, M. Georgas, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and M. Popovic, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2 E-7.

Sun, C.

M. Wade, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, C. Sun, R. Kumar, B. Moss, M. Georgas, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and M. Popovic, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2 E-7.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

M. Georgas, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. Chen, K. Nammari, J. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanovć, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p4.

Sun, J.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. S. Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

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M. Hafezi, E. A. Demler, M. D. Lukin, and J. M. Taylor, Nat. Phys. 7, 907 (2011).
[Crossref]

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C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

Timurdogan, E.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. S. Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

Tosi, A.

M. Davanço, J. Ong, A. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261104 (2012).
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L. A. Barea, F. Vallini, P. F. Jarschel, and N. C. Frateschi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201102 (2013).
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Y. Zhenshan, P. Chak, A. Bristow, H. van Driel, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, A. Smirl, and J. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 32, 828 (2007).

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M. Riaziat, G. Virshup, and J. Eckstein, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1002 (1993).
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M. Wade and M. Popović, Opt. Express 21, 10903 (2013).
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M. Georgas, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. Chen, K. Nammari, J. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanovć, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p4.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

M. Wade, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, C. Sun, R. Kumar, B. Moss, M. Georgas, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and M. Popovic, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2 E-7.

Watts, M.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

Watts, M. R.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. S. Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

M. Davanço, J. Ong, A. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261104 (2012).
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S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), p. 537.

Xu, Y.

Yariv, A.

Zeng, X.

Zhenshan, Y.

Y. Zhenshan, P. Chak, A. Bristow, H. van Driel, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, A. Smirl, and J. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 32, 828 (2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Davanço, J. Ong, A. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261104 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1020 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. A. Barea, F. Vallini, P. F. Jarschel, and N. C. Frateschi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201102 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Riaziat, G. Virshup, and J. Eckstein, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1002 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. S. Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. Hafezi, E. A. Demler, M. D. Lukin, and J. M. Taylor, Nat. Phys. 7, 907 (2011).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

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H. Haus and W. Huang, Proc. IEEE 79, 1505 (1991).
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H. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), p. 537.

M. Wade, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, C. Sun, R. Kumar, B. Moss, M. Georgas, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and M. Popovic, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2 E-7.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p3.

M. Georgas, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Shainline, J. Orcutt, M. Wade, Y. Chen, K. Nammari, J. Leu, A. Srinivasan, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanovć, Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), paper C6p4.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Physical implementation showing two coupled rings that are modulated anti-symmetrically. (b) Abstract representation of wavelength conversion where b 1 and b 2 are the supermode amplitudes of the unmodulated a 1 , a 2 system. (c) Conceptual figure showing conversion from ω 1 to ω 2 . Since the supermode system only supports two resonances, the lower generated sideband is unused. (d)  | S 21 | 2 . Maximally flat (left), Chebyshev (middle), and optimal design with loss (right). Center frequencies are offset for clarity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Wavelength conversion efficiency as a function of modulation strength normalized to intrinsic bandwidth.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Three coupled rings with the outer rings modulated antisymmetrically. (b) Abstract representation of wavelength conversion where b 1 , b 2 , and b 3 are the supermode amplitudes of the unmodulated a 1 , a 2 , a 3 system. (c) Conceptual figure showing conversion between the three supermode resonances. To match the conversion efficiency of the two ring case, light is sent in to the ω 2 resonance (green) and ω 1 (red) and ω 3 (blue) are generated.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Simplified model for carrier-plasma modulator calculations. In the approximations used, the cavity goes from a negligibly small depletion width (top) to fully depleted (middle), which introduces a complex perturbation to the refractive index (bottom). Calculated resonance shift normalized to the total 3-dB linewidth for intrinsic quality factors (b)  Q o = 10 4 (c)  Q o = 10 5 (d)  Q o = 10 6 .

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d d t a⃗ = j ω ¯ ¯ · a⃗ j μ ¯ ¯ · a⃗ ,
a⃗ = ( a 1 a 2 ) μ ¯ ¯ = ( 0 μ μ 0 ) ω ¯ ¯ = ( ω o + δ ω m 2 cos ( ω m t ) 0 0 ω o δ ω m 2 cos ( ω m t ) ) ,
b 1 = 1 2 ( a 1 + a 2 ) , ω 1 = ω o μ b 2 = 1 2 ( a 1 a 2 ) , ω 2 = ω o + μ ,
d d t b⃗ = j ω ¯ ¯ · b⃗ + j μ ¯ ¯ · b⃗ ,
b⃗ = ( b 1 b 2 ) ω ¯ ¯ = ( ω o μ 0 0 ω o + μ ) μ ¯ ¯ = ( 0 δ ω m 2 cos ( ω m t ) δ ω m 2 cos ( ω m t ) 0 ) .
d d t ( B 1 B 2 ) = j δ ω m 4 ( 0 e j ( ω m 2 μ ) t e j ( ω m 2 μ ) t 0 ) · ( B 1 B 2 ) .
d d t B⃗ = j H ¯ ¯ · B⃗ j M ¯ ¯ i S⃗ +
S⃗ = j M ¯ ¯ o · B⃗ + S⃗ + ,
B⃗ = ( B 1 B 2 ) H ¯ ¯ = ( j ( r 1 + r o ) δ ω m 4 δ ω m 4 j ( r 2 + r o ) ) M ¯ ¯ i = ( 2 r 1 2 r 2 ) M ¯ ¯ o = M ¯ ¯ i T S⃗ + = ( S + 1 S + 2 ) S⃗ = ( S 1 S 2 ) .
| S 21 | 2 = 1 4 r 2 δ ω m 2 [ ( r + r o ) 2 + ( δ ω m 4 ) 2 Δ ω 2 ] 2 + 4 Δ ω 2 ( r + r o ) 2 .
δ ω ω o = 1 4 δ ϵ p + δ ϵ n ϵ .
δ f δ f 3 dB = 1 2 n [ δ n p ( N a ) + δ n n ( N d ) ] Q ( N a , N d , Q o ) ,

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