Abstract

We detect trace gases at parts-per-billion levels using evanescent-field absorption spectroscopy in silicon nitride microring resonators coated with a functionalized sorbent polymer. An analysis of the microring resonance line shapes enables a measurement of the differential absorption spectra for a number of vapor-phase analytes. The spectra are obtained at the near-infrared overtone of OH-stretch resonance, which provides information about the toxicity of the analyte vapor.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012

K. Reddy, Y. Guo, J. Liu, W. Lee, M. K. Khaing Oo, and X. Fan, Lab Chip 12, 901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Aguinaldo, Y. Shen, and S. Mookherjea, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McGill, D. Simonson, J. H. Ta, V. Nguyen, Y. Ozten, C. Kendziora, and T. H. Stievater, MRS Online Proc. Libr. 1403, 229 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Stievater, N. A. Papanicolaou, R. Bass, W. S. Rabinovich, and R. A. McGill, Opt. Lett. 37, 2328 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

N. A. Yebo, P. Lommens, Z. Hens, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 18, 11859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, Sensors 10, 6788 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Higgins, D. L. Simonson, E. J. Houser, J. G. Kohl, and R. A. Mcgill, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 48, 3000 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

2002

A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. J. Houser, T. E. Mlsna, V. K. Nguyen, R. Chung, R. L. Mowery, and R. A. McGill, Talanta 54, 469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. H. Abraham, Chem. Soc. Rev. 22, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. Graener, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 3450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, M. H.

M. H. Abraham, Chem. Soc. Rev. 22, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aguinaldo, R.

R. Aguinaldo, Y. Shen, and S. Mookherjea, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Airoudj, A.

A. Airoudj, D. Debarnot, B. Bche, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, Talanta 76, 314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Bass, R.

Bche, B.

A. Airoudj, D. Debarnot, B. Bche, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, Talanta 76, 314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burgmeier, J.

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, Sensors 10, 6788 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chung, R.

E. J. Houser, T. E. Mlsna, V. K. Nguyen, R. Chung, R. L. Mowery, and R. A. McGill, Talanta 54, 469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Debarnot, D.

A. Airoudj, D. Debarnot, B. Bche, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, Talanta 76, 314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

K. Reddy, Y. Guo, J. Liu, W. Lee, M. K. Khaing Oo, and X. Fan, Lab Chip 12, 901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Graener, H.

H. Graener, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 3450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

K. Reddy, Y. Guo, J. Liu, W. Lee, M. K. Khaing Oo, and X. Fan, Lab Chip 12, 901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, H.

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, Sensors 10, 6788 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hens, Z.

Higgins, B. A.

B. A. Higgins, D. L. Simonson, E. J. Houser, J. G. Kohl, and R. A. Mcgill, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 48, 3000 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Houser, E. J.

B. A. Higgins, D. L. Simonson, E. J. Houser, J. G. Kohl, and R. A. Mcgill, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 48, 3000 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Houser, T. E. Mlsna, V. K. Nguyen, R. Chung, R. L. Mowery, and R. A. McGill, Talanta 54, 469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kendziora, C.

R. A. McGill, D. Simonson, J. H. Ta, V. Nguyen, Y. Ozten, C. Kendziora, and T. H. Stievater, MRS Online Proc. Libr. 1403, 229 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Khaing Oo, M. K.

K. Reddy, Y. Guo, J. Liu, W. Lee, M. K. Khaing Oo, and X. Fan, Lab Chip 12, 901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koch, J.

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, Sensors 10, 6788 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kohl, J. G.

B. A. Higgins, D. L. Simonson, E. J. Houser, J. G. Kohl, and R. A. Mcgill, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 48, 3000 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

K. Reddy, Y. Guo, J. Liu, W. Lee, M. K. Khaing Oo, and X. Fan, Lab Chip 12, 901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, J.

K. Reddy, Y. Guo, J. Liu, W. Lee, M. K. Khaing Oo, and X. Fan, Lab Chip 12, 901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lommens, P.

Lützow, P.

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, Sensors 10, 6788 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McGill, R. A.

R. A. McGill, D. Simonson, J. H. Ta, V. Nguyen, Y. Ozten, C. Kendziora, and T. H. Stievater, MRS Online Proc. Libr. 1403, 229 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Stievater, N. A. Papanicolaou, R. Bass, W. S. Rabinovich, and R. A. McGill, Opt. Lett. 37, 2328 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Higgins, D. L. Simonson, E. J. Houser, J. G. Kohl, and R. A. Mcgill, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 48, 3000 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Houser, T. E. Mlsna, V. K. Nguyen, R. Chung, R. L. Mowery, and R. A. McGill, Talanta 54, 469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mlsna, T. E.

E. J. Houser, T. E. Mlsna, V. K. Nguyen, R. Chung, R. L. Mowery, and R. A. McGill, Talanta 54, 469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mookherjea, S.

R. Aguinaldo, Y. Shen, and S. Mookherjea, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mowery, R. L.

E. J. Houser, T. E. Mlsna, V. K. Nguyen, R. Chung, R. L. Mowery, and R. A. McGill, Talanta 54, 469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V.

R. A. McGill, D. Simonson, J. H. Ta, V. Nguyen, Y. Ozten, C. Kendziora, and T. H. Stievater, MRS Online Proc. Libr. 1403, 229 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. K.

E. J. Houser, T. E. Mlsna, V. K. Nguyen, R. Chung, R. L. Mowery, and R. A. McGill, Talanta 54, 469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nitkowski, A.

Orghici, R.

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, Sensors 10, 6788 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ozten, Y.

R. A. McGill, D. Simonson, J. H. Ta, V. Nguyen, Y. Ozten, C. Kendziora, and T. H. Stievater, MRS Online Proc. Libr. 1403, 229 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Papanicolaou, N. A.

Poncin-Epaillard, F.

A. Airoudj, D. Debarnot, B. Bche, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, Talanta 76, 314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rabinovich, W. S.

Reddy, K.

K. Reddy, Y. Guo, J. Liu, W. Lee, M. K. Khaing Oo, and X. Fan, Lab Chip 12, 901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. T.

Schade, W.

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, Sensors 10, 6788 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

R. Aguinaldo, Y. Shen, and S. Mookherjea, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Simonson, D.

R. A. McGill, D. Simonson, J. H. Ta, V. Nguyen, Y. Ozten, C. Kendziora, and T. H. Stievater, MRS Online Proc. Libr. 1403, 229 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Simonson, D. L.

B. A. Higgins, D. L. Simonson, E. J. Houser, J. G. Kohl, and R. A. Mcgill, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 48, 3000 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stievater, T. H.

T. H. Stievater, N. A. Papanicolaou, R. Bass, W. S. Rabinovich, and R. A. McGill, Opt. Lett. 37, 2328 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McGill, D. Simonson, J. H. Ta, V. Nguyen, Y. Ozten, C. Kendziora, and T. H. Stievater, MRS Online Proc. Libr. 1403, 229 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ta, J. H.

R. A. McGill, D. Simonson, J. H. Ta, V. Nguyen, Y. Ozten, C. Kendziora, and T. H. Stievater, MRS Online Proc. Libr. 1403, 229 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Waldvogel, S.

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, Sensors 10, 6788 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Welschoff, N.

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, Sensors 10, 6788 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yebo, N. A.

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 2005).

Chem. Soc. Rev.

M. H. Abraham, Chem. Soc. Rev. 22, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Aguinaldo, Y. Shen, and S. Mookherjea, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

H. Graener, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 3450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem.

B. A. Higgins, D. L. Simonson, E. J. Houser, J. G. Kohl, and R. A. Mcgill, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 48, 3000 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip

K. Reddy, Y. Guo, J. Liu, W. Lee, M. K. Khaing Oo, and X. Fan, Lab Chip 12, 901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

MRS Online Proc. Libr.

R. A. McGill, D. Simonson, J. H. Ta, V. Nguyen, Y. Ozten, C. Kendziora, and T. H. Stievater, MRS Online Proc. Libr. 1403, 229 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Sensors

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, Sensors 10, 6788 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Talanta

E. J. Houser, T. E. Mlsna, V. K. Nguyen, R. Chung, R. L. Mowery, and R. A. McGill, Talanta 54, 469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Airoudj, D. Debarnot, B. Bche, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, Talanta 76, 314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM image of a SiN waveguide coated with a sorbent polymer. (b) A finite-element modal surface plot of Ex for the quasi-TE00 mode at 1540 nm. (c) A photograph of a coated SiN microring resonator and adjacent bus waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Microring transmission spectrum collected from the output of the bus waveguide prior to analyte exposure. Inset: a smaller spectral region showing the ring resonances. (b), (c) The measured group index and coupling coefficient (from the line shape fitting) prior to analyte exposure, and the calculated values. (d) The measured propagation loss of the microring (from the line shape fitting), for the cases prior to and during analyte exposure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Change in microring loss (Δα) due to exposure to (a) DMMP vapor, (b) acetone vapor, and (c) NB vapor.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of Parameters for the Three Analyte Vapors

Equations (1)

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T=(1κ)+a2a1κcosϕa(1κ)+12a1κcosϕ,

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