Abstract

We report high-power supercontinuum (SC) generation in a step-index fluorozirconate (ZBLAN) fiber with a zero-dispersion wavelength shifted to 1.9μm. Pumping the fluoride fiber with 2.75 W of power provided by a thulium-doped fiber amplifier, a continuous spectrum extending from 0.85 to 4.2 μm with 2.24 W of average output power was achieved. Over 61% (1.37 W) of the total output power corresponds to wavelengths longer than 3 μm, which shows, to the best of our knowledge, the highest power conversion efficiency toward the mid-IR spectral band in relation to the output spectrum width. A linear SC power scalability up to 5.24 W, with a spectral band of 0.94μm, with repetition rate and pump power provided by a 1.55 μm fiber master-oscillator power amplifier system, is also demonstrated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

M. Liao, W. Gao, Z. Duan, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Opt. Lett. 37, 2127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumar, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Chan, M. Neelakandan, and T. Manzur, Appl. Opt. 51, 2794 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Eckerle, C. Kieleck, J. Swiderski, S. D. Jackson, G. Maze, and M. Eichhorn, Opt. Lett. 37, 512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 345 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2009

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Yulin, Phys. Rev. E 72, 016619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1995

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987

P. W. France, S. F. Carter, M. W. Moore, and C. R. Day, Br. Telecommun. Technol. J. 5, 28 (1987).

1977

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 345 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Agger, C. S.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2006).

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alam, S. U.

Alexander, V. V.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2486 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Baskiotis, C.

Carter, S. F.

P. W. France, S. F. Carter, M. W. Moore, and C. R. Day, Br. Telecommun. Technol. J. 5, 28 (1987).

Chan, A.

Chaudhari, C.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chavez-Pirson, A.

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T.

Daigle, J.-F.

Day, C. R.

P. W. France, S. F. Carter, M. W. Moore, and C. R. Day, Br. Telecommun. Technol. J. 5, 28 (1987).

Deng, D.

Duan, Z.

Eckerle, M.

Eichhorn, M.

El Amraoui, M.

Feehan, J. S.

Fortin, J.

France, P. W.

P. W. France, S. F. Carter, M. W. Moore, and C. R. Day, Br. Telecommun. Technol. J. 5, 28 (1987).

Freeman, M. J.

M. Kumar, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Chan, M. Neelakandan, and T. Manzur, Appl. Opt. 51, 2794 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2486 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, W.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 345 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Heidt, A. M.

Hou, J.

Islam, M. N.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumar, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Chan, M. Neelakandan, and T. Manzur, Appl. Opt. 51, 2794 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2486 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Izawa, T.

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

Karlsson, M.

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, H.

Ke, K.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kieleck, C.

Kito, C.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kubat, I.

Kulkarni, O. P.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2486 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, M.

Légaré, F.

Li, Z.

Liao, M.

Manzur, T.

Mathieu, P.

Mauricio, J.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maze, G.

Messaddeq, Y.

Michalska, M.

J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moore, M. W.

P. W. France, S. F. Carter, M. W. Moore, and C. R. Day, Br. Telecommun. Technol. J. 5, 28 (1987).

Moselund, P. M.

Neelakandan, M.

Nguyen, D.

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. Q.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 345 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

Price, J. H. V.

Pureza, P. C.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 345 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rhonehouse, D.

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Sanghera, J. S.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 345 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. E.

Shaw, L. B.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 345 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Skryabin, D. V.

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Yulin, Phys. Rev. E 72, 016619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C.

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

Swiderski, J.

Takeda, A.

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Terry, F. L.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumar, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Chan, M. Neelakandan, and T. Manzur, Appl. Opt. 51, 2794 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2486 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thapa, R.

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Théberge, F.

Thiré, N.

Vincent, D.

Welsh, M. J.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, K.

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xia, C.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X.

M. Liao, W. Gao, Z. Duan, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Opt. Lett. 37, 2127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

Yin, K.

Yulin, A. V.

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Yulin, Phys. Rev. E 72, 016619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zakel, A.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Zhou, X.

Zong, J.

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Br. Telecommun. Technol. J.

P. W. France, S. F. Carter, M. W. Moore, and C. R. Day, Br. Telecommun. Technol. J. 5, 28 (1987).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Phys. Lett.

J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 345 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Yulin, Phys. Rev. E 72, 016619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2006).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup for SC generation. OI, optical isolator; EDFA, Er3+-doped fiber amplifier; EYDFA, Er3+:Yb3+-doped fiber amplifier; TDF, Tm3+-doped fiber; ZBLAN, fluorozirconate fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SC total output average power scalability with repetition rate. Top inset: SC total output power versus pump power launched into the ZBLAN fiber set for different (applied) repetition rates. Bottom inset: spectrum generated at the SMF output, recorded for 9 W of output power and 1.5 MHz repetition rate.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SC spectra recorded for five different values of output average power.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SC spectrum generated from the 7.5 m long ZBLAN fiber at 2.24 W of output power. The inset shows the spectrum of the signal measured at the TDF output for 5 W of output power.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SC output average power as a function of pump power. Output average power and power conversion efficiency (η) are shown for wavelengths beyond 2.4 (top inset) and 3 μm (bottom inset).

Metrics